20 Years Experience
For twenty years I officiated high school, AAU and park district basketball games, retiring recently. For a few officiating is the focus of their occupation, while for most working as an umpire or basketball referee is an avocation. I started ref'ing to earn beer money during college, but it became a great way to stay connected to the best sports game in the universe. As a spinoff, I wrote a sports-thriller novel loosely based on my referee experiences titled, Advantage Disadvantage
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Yes, it is often unfair that a coach's actions can influence or cost their team a game, but it is also unfair that a coach can use the referees and a T to motivate his team. I had a coach draw me closer and quietly tell me that he wanted a T. I wouldn't call it, so then he stepped back and ultimately swore at me, earning him the T. Then his team turned on the juice and blew the other team out. So, I guess it goes both ways.
A troublesome judgement call is whether a foul, typically near the end of a game, is intentional or not. The whole gym knows that a team wants to foul to stop the clock in a tight game but for some officials, if the defender is "going for the ball" no intentional foul is called. Intentional fouls carry a higher penalty in National Federation High School Rules. So it is called inconsistently. A potential rule change is instead of penalizing free throws and the ball, I would make the penalty free throws OR the ball.
Two things: 1) fans often mistake legitimate basketball moves when the player goes slowly - especially when a player down low pivots, steps and lifts the pivot foot. This is a legitimate basket move (otherwise you would never be able to shoot a layup). 2) The call most missed (maybe it is just my pet peeve) is the Jordan move of giving up your pivot foot before starting your dribble. This gives a tremendous advantage to the offensive player, and is very difficult to defend.
If the clock started when the ball crossed into the court, a team could stall, for example, by throwing the ball high in the air across the gym and out of bounds without any player having a chance to catch the ball. Or, from the front court on an out of bounds play you could pitch the ball into the backcourt and stall off a few seconds, without any player touching the ball. The clock rightfully starts when an in-bounds player touches the ball.
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The fans pay for the best players to be on the floor. If you allow rough play and don't penalize it, then why not add a "goon" (ala hockey of old) to knock the stars out of the contest. The NBA surely looks at superstars as assets which generate revenue, so I agree with being harsh with hurtful play.
As far as I know there is no mechanic for overturning calls officially except in state tournaments where replay might be allowed for end of quarter timing calls (before or after buzzer), with the exception of 5 correctable errors as defined in the federation rule book. These 5 errors are things like reversing an erroneously awarded free throw, etc.. In all other cases overturning calls should be discussed in the referee's pregame in the lockerroom. Some guys take the position that they never want to be overturned. My preference, and I always told my partners this, is if my partner disagrees with my call do the following: 1) blow the whistle and stop the game, 2) privately tell me what you saw and why you disagree with the call, and 3) I will decide whether to overturn based on what I saw and what you told me. That way, no one is overturning anybody else - the calling official is given the chance to reverse.
Parents are the problem with youth sports. I have had more parents removed from games than players and coaches combined. Here's an irony: freshman games are harder to call than varsity, because unless you want to ruin the game completely in underclass games you are deciding when not to blow the whistle. in varsity games you call mostly what you see. Yet, as you progress and hone the referee craft you work less underclass games. So inevitably in a blowout freshman game a player is mildy fouled while dribbling going east and west near the half court line. The dribbler maintains control of the ball, but you are trying to keep the game moving. The freshman's father stands up screaming for a foul, because he wants his 3rd string kid to shoot a free throw to get it on tape and in the record book. There is a learning curve for fans as well - varsity parents are generally better. One of my peers was once attacked at halftime by a freshman player's grandfather.
In high school ball (and even college) the girls game is played below the rim. So, there is generally more passing and bombing away compared to the boy's game. Having said that, there is an unmistakable trend in the girl's game where the guards can handle the ball and are skilled enough to penetrate the lane and dish. In my view, the most boring basketball (boys, girls, mens or women) is when they dump the ball into the post and watch a turnaround jump shot by tall players. If you lower the girl's rim (ring as the rule book calls it), I'm afraid you will encourage more rough post play. Just my opinion though, because there are plenty of people who loved watching Shaq play.
In a three man crew, usually the Center official and the Trail official will both see it. One of them has primary coverage and has to make the initial call. The other can come in and discuss if they see it a different way, but someone has to make the initial call, and in a normal set the on-ball ref should be able to see the line and the feet. In general, I try not to call something I did not see, but 2 or 3 point shots force you to call - a no call 3 is a defacto 2. I suppose if you struggle to know and it is your call, you should call a 2, then conference with your partners to see if they can offer you better guidence.
It is absolutely not a legal play to use a teammate or an opponent to leverage a jump. By the way, a couple years ago players started showing up with shoes that had built-in springs in the heels - also illegal.
I have thick skin, and in twenty years I have tossed maybe 2 players (more coaches for sure!). I have always looked at like this: If a player disagrees and argues with a call I will not T him up, especially if the player approaches with respect. And I will always explain my call even if I have booted it. What can never be tolerated is any personal attack, which usually is designed to intimidate the ref. More than anything a player's actions after a close call does determine how you view the player on the next one (we are just human). The tougher situation when you have to be calm is when a player deliberately acts to show you up - some refs automatically T a player, but I feel like that is putting your ego in front of the game.
Offensive goaltending is the act of interfering with the ball in its downward arc toward the basket or interfering with the ball while it is in an imaginary cylinder above the rim. When I was in high school college and HS players were not allowed to dunk. I think that the rule makers have decided that it is an exciting play for fans, and it does not happen in excess in games. The tough call is when the ball bounces on the rim and a player slams it in. Did the player touch the ball while it was inside that cylinder?
I once passed on a block/charge situation because I thought it was one of my partner's call. I was wrong and it was mine to make. So, nothing was called even when the players went sprawling. Both coaches were pissed, and were right. There was a foul in there, and a no call was horrible. By the way, some of my best calls were no calls, even when the crowd howls for something. I am so conscious of not coming back with a make-up call that I think I overcompensate and dig in to the detriment of the team whose call I booted.
No, I never officiated a game where there was any legal betting.There were anecdotal stories and rumors about betting on high school games, but I don't have first hand knowledge. Here is a story told to me which I have every reason to believe is true, and it also served as the inspiration for my novel's storyline: A ref was called the night before to fill in for a park district game in Chicago. He was going to be paid $100 to be the only official (high game fee should have raised a red flag). He showed up and there were a couple hundred people surrounding the outdoor court in a park. Two huge guys from opposing gangs met the ref at his car and explained that they were there to protect him ("no quips") no matter what his calls were. The pressure level was raised and the ref was worried. As he approached the court, he saw guys as old as 35 in the layup lines, in pro-style uniforms - this was no park district kids league, this was the gang banger's league. He called the coaches and captains together for a quick pre game conference (hoping to preempt problems). While holding the conference one of the "managers" answers his phone an accepts a bet for 10 biscuits. The ref asks him about the bet and learns that a biscuit is $1,000 . The manager brags that he has accepted a lot more than $10,000 on this game. By now the ref was sweating bullets. The ref took off running to the parking lot and jumped in his car while the 2 assigned gangbangers chased after him. He was able to escape.
There are some sports where it is difficult to officiate if you have not played (wrestling, diving, gymnastics). In my view basketball is not one of them, although people with playing experience often excel. Every state is different, but here's how it goes in Illinois: you apply to the state to get certified. In the application you attest to your non-criminal background, and you list 3 references, one of whom should be associated with high school basketball. You send in your application and $40 and they will send reference cards (probably emails by now) to your three people. Once they respond in a satisfactory way, then you are sent the rule, case study and mechanics books and the questions for an open book exam. In Illinois you also have to attend an annual rules meeting (now online). ...More If you want to work the state tournament you must attend a certified camp at least every three years. I wish I would have attended camps early in my career - they are humbling and usually stress judgement and proper mechanics but you learn so much. Having done all of this you will be "patched", that is you've passed the state requirements and they send you the state's patch to sew on your uniform. This is half the battle. Now you must get booked for assignments, usually starting out doing freshman games. In most states, it is worth it to join a local official's association. Not only will you get valuable training at the meetings from the veterans, usually each association also has assignment chairpersons who come to the meetings and are members. They often give favorable treatment to members of their associations in terms of game assignments. Some of these associations offer mentoring programs where experienced officials will watch you work games and offer critical feedback. In the summer camps you will also get great feedback from the refs running the camp. Sometimes they will shadow you on the floor, helping you with positioning, angles, and mechanics. It all sounds like a lot, but if you love the game like I do, officiating is a wonderful way of staying connected long after your playing days are over - and they will even pay you for it!
I am a big fan of college basketball. I was really disgusted when D Wade and Bosh and LeBron conspired to rig Miami's team, which circumvented the whole basis for creating competition in the NBA - each team owner acting in their own interest in the market for players. There is a real danger for this precedent - what if in the future a group of free agent all stars decide to play for a team a rack up a record of say, 75 - 7. Who would watch the games? When Jordan had his 2nd run on the Bulls, the stadium often emptied out in the third quarter - just before the fat lady sang. In general I find the NBA, especially in the eastern conference too physical. Although I must admit it is fun to watch the D Rose and the Bulls (I probably like them because they don't have a center-oriented offense. So, I am a bigger fan of the college game because I find it more competitive and more capable of upsets. Having said all of that, the increasing number of players leaving college early hurts the fans ability to follow team progress. In the end, I would rather be associated with the college game.
Yes, a coach once said, "you wouldn't let it get so rough if the player wasn't black". I immediately blew my whistle and told the coach he was out of bounds. If he wants to say that it is getting rough in there, then say so. But to suggest that it is rough because the post player was black was an attack on my integrity. I gave him a chance to rescind his comment (remember, I rarely use technical fouls), and he immediately agreed that it was inappropriate and inaccurate - he apologized. More often in my experience there has been racial trash talk between players which must be immediately penalized. A few years ago a school's student body was taunting a black player with a racial chant. The referees failed to stop the game, warn the crowd, and if necessary start having them removed. The refs were sanctioned for lack of action.
I admit it during a game if I boot a call. Most coaches would favor honesty as in, "hey coach you are probably right about that last call - after thinking about it I think I made the wrong call", as opposed to trying to argue something you realize is not true. So if there was a question of rule or angle of play, and if I determined that I made a bad call or applied a rule in error I would definitely contact the coach and explain what my thinking was, and why I now think I may have been wrong. That's me, other ref's never ever say they made a bad call.
In most high schools (at least around Chicago) the coaches usually will not put up with such selfish play....BUT in AAU ball, where a lot of college recruiters have to go to get talent, the desire for the highlight reel is rampant and lessens the game. At the very elite level AAU players are better developed through rigorous training and coaching, but the street agent and coach-controlled hold on middle to upper players is horrible. Some AAU coaches encourage showboating because it is flashy and might increase the recruiting clout that they show, but it usually does not win games. It is a real dilemma.
The ref is part of the floor. If the ball bounces off a ref, it is ruled based on where the ref is standing. If the ref is standing one foot out of bounds and player causes the ball to hit the ref it is ruled out of bounds (even if the ball never crossed the line). Likewise if the ref is legally in bounds and the ball hits him, play on. Think hockey.
First, the rule. Your position on the court is based on where you stood (or touched last). So after a rebound a player establishes himself out of bounds (one foot or two), and then lifts a foot through an imaginary plane along the baseline, he is not inbounds until his foot hits the floor inbounds - no violation for breaking the plane by the player throwing in the ball. Secondly, there is the dominent philosophy of basket officating called, "Advantage Disadvantage" which holds that you should only stop the game if an opposing player caused a change in A/D. So, you pass on uncontested palming in the backcourt for example.
The National Federation of High Schools revises the rules annually. The last most significant rule change (in my opinion) was implemented a couple years ago. Before the change, when a player with the ball committed a foul it was an offensive foul. Likewise, before the change, if a player on the offensive team WITHOUT the ball committed a foul it was considered a common foul and if the other team was in the bonus free throws were attempted. When they changed the rule they added a foul type (offensive team foul) and it is penalized like a player control foul - no free throws. Most changes to the rule book are "points of emphasis" or mechanic changes. It seems rough post play and hand-checking are annual points of emphasis. An example of a mechanics change was made several years ago so that the referee reporting a foul now normally stays table-side (near the coaches to explain a call if necessary) while the other officials rotate away. It used to be that in Illinois for example, when you paid your annual state registration dues you received three books: rules, case studies, and mechanics. To cut costs, most officials in Illinois now receive the books every other year. You can go to nfhs.org and see the changes legislated by sport prior to each season.
In National Federation High School rules each technical is awarded 2 free throws, except if there are off-setting technicals on both teams. Remember a coach can be tossed on 1 technical for a flagrant behavior, for two direct technicals or 3 indirect/directs. In your question the team would be awarded 4 free throws plus the ball.
It is hard to get a charge because to play proper defense in order to get a charge is hard work. Remember, the defender must establish his position BEFORE the offensive player leaves his feet. And to further complicate things, the defender can be moving while taking a charge if the defender moves "obliquely" after establishing a position. Here's my opinion: the best referees get the block/charge correct most often because they "referee the defense". That means, for example, if you are the lead referee under the basket and a player begins to drive, shift your eyes immediately to watch the defender. By following the defender, you will know whether he got there in time. Refereeing the defense is hard to do because we always watch the offense (on TV and at games). Next time you watch a game, see if you can pick up the off-ball officials not looking at the offense. If they are looking away from the ball, they are probably good officials and they are "refereeing the defense".
In most states, each game is supposed to have a function designated game management (or game administrator). This is usually the Athletic Director. So, when a fan needs to be ejected the referee should find the game administrator and say something like, "the guy in the third row with the red shirt must be ejected." In my experience, they always remove the fan as requested. In summary, I have required certain fans to be ejected, but I've never had to physically do it or have a standoff with a fan. If the game management refused to eject a fan, I would refuse to continue ref'ing the game.
Completely unacceptable. If I was the coach I would lodge my complaint with the referees as soon as it started getting rough. If they continued to fail to enforce the legitimate rules of the game I would be compelled to act. I believe that a coach’s first responsibility is the safety of the players, and if I felt that the team’s safety was at risk I would pull my players off the floor and forfeit the match. Then I would write a commentary along with game tape and get the referees bounced (and decertified) for 1) not enforcing the rules of the game and 2) allowing the environment to threaten the safety of the players. It is hard to believe that state certified officials would let this happen - it is also strange to hear about 3 man crews working middle school games. In the conferences I worked, only high school varsity games used 3 ref’s.
No. There is no provision for a non-participating official to over rule a referee. If I was watching a couple officials work a game I would not get involved during live play unless the game was devolving into mayhem. Normally, I would go to the official's lockerroom at halftime and discuss what they saw, what the rule interpertation should be, and how to administer it, but not during the game unless it was totally out of control. Except in unusual situations, there is no provision for one referee on the floor to over rule the other. My preference always is that if one of my partners believe I blew a call I want him to approach me and tell me what he saw, and let me decide to change my call. I used to cover this style in my pre-game conference with the other refs before the game.
For the past 5 years my schedule was about 75% girls' games. The game is played below the rim with a focus on passing. Every year I think the girls' games improve in quality on the high school level. Most teams around Chicago have a guard who can penetrate the lane, and a 3 point shooter. What they never have are quick forwards who have inside games. To me, the girl's high school and college games are intersting, but I do not enjoy the women's pro game. It seems like a WMCA pickup game. The girls game will continue to get better, but it won't be the high flying athletic boys game at comparable levels.
Just a speculative guess... I think the boys high school team beats the women's pro team because usually the best boys' team sends a player or two right into the NBA. Males peak physically around 19 or twenty, so I think physicality trumps maturity and practice. Who knows? This question reminds me of the tennis battle of the sexes in 1973 when Bobby Riggs gave Billie Jean King the doubles lines and was soundly trounced (but both made a lot money promoting it!).
An "over and back", or backcourt violation (not to be confused with a 10 second backcourt violation) can only occur when it is proceeded by the offensive team establishing possession in their front court. There is no possession on a throw in, which is why the offense can pitch it directly into the backcourt. In your scenario, there is a judgement call to be made: did the offensive player in a controlled way purposely tip the ball (implying control)? Or did the player tip the ball without control? Without control, it is not a backcourt violation to retrieve it.
I only called technical fouls on players for swearing when it was aimed at an opposing player or me. A push or shove can be a either common, intentional, or technical foul depending on the severity and situation.
Some international games are played without referees touching the ball on violations, as you suggest. I guess it rewards readiness but also creates a sneakiness to the game. As it is played in high school federation rules, the referees should hold the ball allowing substitutes and the teams are given time to setup. I suppose it is a matter of preference.
A try or tap ends when it is apparent that the ball will not go through the ring. So when a 3 point try falls short and the ball bounces on the floor the try is over. When a ball enters the ring and goes through (assuming it is no longer a 3 point try) it is a two point score.
if any part of a player is out of bounds, he is out of bounds. If a player (a teammate who is legally in the game as a participant) is out of bounds and is the first to touch the ball before it is otherwise out of bounds, the ball is awarded to the other team. Here's a better example to clarify: Player A1 is out of bounds throwing the ball in. The ball bounces off of B1 (who is inbounds) and comes back and hits A1 before A1 returns to be inbounds. Team B is awarded a throw in.
To clarify your question, I believe you are asking what should happen if a one and one is awarded in error and then discovered. There are 5 correctable errors in the high school federation rule book, and one is the awarding of unmerited free throws. However, to be correctable, it must be recognized by the officials no later than during the first dead ball, after the clock has been properly started. I have encountered this only once in 20 years, If properly recognized, the free throw points are removed but other scores after the erroneous last free throw still count. It's a messy rule, and once every twenty years is too much!
Replay IS being used by various levels in basketball. In National Federation of High School Rules, states are allowed the option to use replay in the state tournament for specific things such as whether a buzzer shot was launched before time expired. In college, they use replay to ascertain the severity of fouls - whether a tech foul is flagarant or class 1, etc. NBA seems to use it more. The benefit is to make sure you get the call correct, the obvious downside is that it takes time and breaks momentum.
I think the end of close game calls are debatable, especially by the coaches who have a vested interest. From the beginning, I have been confident enough to be strong in my calls and my judgement. Here's what happened in one instance: The lead changed hands 3 times in the last minute. With 3 seconds left and the game tied, I am administering a throw in to the home team near their basket on the end line. After a time out, the home team lobs over the defender and the offensive player skips toward the basket after dribbling once and picking up the ball. I blow met whistle loudly while the ball is in the air, and I am waiving off the shot (the buzzer sounds while the ball is in the air as well). I move in and call traveling and I am waiving off the shot, sending the game into overtime. The home coach just stared at me during most of the 1 minute period before overtime. In overtime the visitors pulled away and won the game, much to the chagrin of the home team. Two years later, the home coach was scouting a state playoff game I was working and at halftime said to me, "that was the most courageous and correct call in a critical moment that he had seen". The coach said that he asked the assignment chairman to put me on more of his games. I think he watched the tape and saw the traveling. In summary, I have made a few calls I regret, but none of them have been mistakes at crucial times.
Pro, college men, college women and high school rules sometime are different so I'm only addressing high school rules.I believe this situation was addressed in a recent case book for the NFHS (national federation of high schools). As I recall, the case book interpretation was that playing with too many players was punishable ONLY if discovered during a live ball. As you have described it, I believe the technical foul was called in error. Furthermore, strong referees would always count players after substitutes come in and/or after timeouts, especially at the varsity level with a three man crew. Preventive officiating would have at least one of the crew always count the players. You will notice this watching a seasoned good crew, as the official administering the throw-in, free throws, or jump ball will look for visual confirmation from his partners, who would be responsible for counting players. Sounds like you were jobbed.
The ball is dead when it is apparent to the referee that it will not hit the rim or enter the ring. I wouldn't think that any reasonable official would whistle a lane violation, ruling that it occurred before the free throw was dead. I have never seen it, and if one of my partners called that it would seem like he is trying to pick a fight or punish one team. The only exception would be if the other team steps into the lane (well before the shot is launched) to purposely disconcert the free thrower and he fires an air ball, then I suppose a violation could be called.
In Illinois, the only fine I am aware of is included in most game assignment contracts which is equal to one game fee. So, if you fail to show up at an assigned game you could be fined the amount you would have been paid. As far as I know, there are no fines for making bad calls. Eventually, if you have complaints from the coaches, the assignments dry up quickly. I'm not sure about college, but I suspect suspensions are possible in the NBA and that is equivalent to being fined.
This is a tough judgement call. If, both boys simultaneously held the ball or put force on the ball in opposite directions (as in a stuffed blocked shot) then it should be called a held ball (jump ball going to the possession arrow). If the ref rules that there was not dual possession then you have to call a foul and/or subject a player to really getting hurt. This does not happen too often at the boy's varsity level (quick and strength), but it happens. Opinion: good officials have a quick whistle for held balls to avoid the weaker player always getting a foul.
The only exception to 2 free throws being awarded in the NBA that I know of is in the last two minutes of the game it is 1 free throw plus possession. There is a good chart of NBA free throws on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_throw So who knows what the announcers are saying? They also say that some fouls are "over the back" and others are "reaching in", neither of which are defined in the rule book.
Every state has its own rules. In Illinois you have to be at least 17 years old to be "patched" by the state. You must be patched by the state to work high school games. However, many park districts and youth clubs hire younger officials to work games. Some of them also offer training and mentoring of young teenagers.
The answer to your question is no. If the previous award was in error, it was either correctable or uncorrectable depending on when it was discovered. If the second foul still does not put you in the bonus you should not be awarded any free throws. The fact that a mistake was made on the previous free foul does not mandate a second mistake (assuming both of these fouls occurred with less than 7 team fouls).
If the ball goes directly from inbounds to touch Team A's player (before hitting the floor) who is out of bounds the ball is awarded to Team B. It doesn't matter who tipped the ball before the ball went out of bounds. The violation is that Player A touched a live, inbounds ball while he/she was out of bounds.
A defender has the right to a vertical space if he gets there before the offensive leaves his space to move. Therefore, a defender can be moving and still take a charge. The rule book calls this moving obliquely - that is away or angled. If an offensive player turns into a space the defender is entitled to, it is a charge.
I think this is the same question you asked 2 questions above. The answer is that unless it is a flagrant (technical) foul, the push is considered a team control foul. No free throws are awarded to team B, but they are awarded the ball at the point nearest the infraction.
Based on your scenario this should not have been called a "T". Remember it is a technical foul to have more than 5 players on the floor DURING A LIVE BALL. In your description the ball never changed status to live because on a throw in the ball is only considered live when "it is put at the disposal of the team who will execute the throw in". Your ref made an error.
A shooting foul is defined as a player on a try or tip at his team's basket. So, if a player is fouled shooting at the "wrong" basket it is a common foul. If the ball is in the cylinder and batted away by the defensive team it is goaltending and 2 points.
If you get a timeout before 10 seconds is called, the 10 seconds is reset. Just as on a throw-in gets reset to 5 on a timeout. Only the shot clock stays where it was on a time out.
Most respectful way is to ask the ref if he can discuss a play. If you are the kind of coach who is shilling for every call you will be ignored by a skilled official for your own good. You would do well to expend your enegy in understanding how tight or loose a ref is calling a game, and coaching accordingly, rather than ratcheting up your complaints. During a game, the ref holds all the cards. After the game if you feel a ref is grossly misinterpreting the rules talk to the assignment chairman.
There is great debate here about whether you should call every infraction, or should you call violations and infractions only if there is a change in advantage? I personally believe that it is better to use the Advantage/Disadvantage considerations at the lower levels where the skill set is more limited. If, in a freshman game you call everything you will most assuredly ruin the flow of basketball and probably foul out most of the starters. At the varsity level, or college there is less to NOT CALL. Mark Cuban, owner of the NBA Dallas Mavericks is strongly against Advantage/Disadvantage officiating in the NBA. Juries out, and every official I know has a different take on this (and so do the coaches).
A player throwing the ball in on a spot throw in is restricted to a 3 foot wide, and unlimited deep area. At least one foot must be in or on this area. There is no travelling possible on a throw in. Now, to your question, a throw in player is allowed to dribble as long as the dribbling is out of bounds. Hypothetically if the throw in player dribles in bounds and then touches the ball it is a turnover because the throw in player was out of bounds and touched the ball which was put in bounds when the dribble hit the playing floor. If the throw in is after a basket, of course there is no 3 foot wide area.
Since the defender hit the ball, the offensive team no longer has control of the ball, nor did they gain control when it grazed the offensive player. So, no possession right before the ball entered the backcourt, no backcourt violation . Bad call, ref.
I assume you are a player. I always respected the players who accepted violations and fouls I called on them, and when they had a question they respectfully asked about the call (not argued). Have you ever seen on tv a college ref who makes a marginal call that the player disagrees with, the ref gives the player an explanation and the player accepts the call (such as patting the ref on the back, or saying "good call"). Another way to earn the ref's respect is to control your teammates when they think there is a bad call. This is all common sense - I guess I am saying respect the refs first and it will come back to you.
In theory, a foul is a foul is a foul. If the leading team commits a foul late in the game that I would have called in the first half, I would call it in the last 20 seconds. My experience is the opposite. Unless there is a crushing foul many (unprincipled) refs will eat the whistle to avoid possible overtime. That's bad, but worse is calling a foul late in the game that had been ignorred earlier in the game.
The NFHS rules were changed for the 2011/12 season to rule that during a throw-in by team A, team A has ball control when the ball for the throw in is at their disposal. So if your team commits a team foul during control it is team control foul and no free throws are rewarded. Exception: if the push is considered flagarant.
Not at all. I am biased toward the Big Ten so I went down with Wisconsin already in the 1st round. My beloved Illini nearly lost to Colorado State too. My best pick so far this year is California over UNLV, but generally I am middle of the pack. How about you?
Yes, because Team A established control in the front court and then Team A touched the ball in the backcourt without Team B gaining possession it is a backcourt violation.
A referee should not favor any team, but officials are only human. I think perceptions are the issue here. For example, urban Chicago teams tend to play high paced running and pressing games, while suburban teams tend to play more patterned offenses (stereotypical, I know, but generally true). So when an urban teams plays in the suburbs they might encounter referees who are used to calling a slower paced game with tighter calls, while Chicago refs might allow more contact. So, do the suburban officials favor suburban teams, or are they just used to that style of play? In theory, a foul is a foul, but all of us have degrees of what we don't call (see advantage disadvantage theory of officiating). However, if you find a referee who clearly favors a team (not style), he or she must be sanctioned
Merely asking for timeout when your team does not have possession is not a technical foul, UNLESS it is done in a purposeful, unsportsmanlike manner. So if you ask for the timeout in the way you normally ask, the referee should ignore you, and better yet say something like "no timeout, you don't have possession". If my judgement was that the coach was trying to get an advantage, such as an erroneous whistle (to get a sub in for instance, or give his players a short rest), or to distract the officials from the game then I would call an unsportsmanlike technical. Having said all of that, I have never called a T on a coach for asking for a timeout without ball possession.
There needs to be more women referees at all levels. In the conferences I worked in there was a fair amount of pressure on the assignment chairs to put qualified women at the varsity level. However, I observed that at clinics and in associations which form the pools of available referees, the participants were predominantly men. So when a talented female referee was "discovered", my experience is that the path to college assignments (mentoring, camps, and connections) opened up quickly for them. In my view, there is not enough emphasis on recruiting and mentoring early on, and so the pool is drained of quality female talent quickly. For anyone to move ahead in your officiating career you have to be solid in rules knowledge, judgement, hustle, etc, but now is a great time for qualified women to take advantage of the scarcity. If a female ref is any good, she probably can move up and be discovered a little faster.
Football??? In Federation rules for basketball, you must start the game with five players. If, because of disqualification or injuries you lose players, you can continue to play as long as you have at least 2 players. If you had only one player, how would you inbound a throw in? So, you must start with five per side, but after the game begins you can play with at least 2.
No you don't get the points. The referees should stop the game once they realize the game is being played in the wrong directions. Points made, stand. Turn the teams around, and the refs should be incredibly embarrassed. This is very simple. The home teams picks which bench they want to use before the game. Each team scores at the basket opposite of their benches in the first half. Bad officiating - whether it is a two or three person crew someone should have caught it DURING THE WARMUPS!
Depends where you are. If you live in a small town you will probably be the best in your class. Around Chicago and its suburbs, there are more important measurements: speed, height, jump shot form, fundamentals, basketball IQ, etc.. The basketball landscape is littered with players who dominated in 8th grade but didn't grow in height, skills or athleticism. There is a great book about one such player, Play Their Hearts Out, which chronicles the true story of Dimetrius Walker. Once, he was a sure fire next LeBron, but in high school he stopped growing and now is a bench guard in college. Be humble, and forget the scoring stats - my best advice is work on your fundamentals.
I try not to, but it happens. If a player challenges me I won't back down even in a big game. Being perceived as a punk player can only work to your detriment.
There is nothing in the Ferderation of High School rule book, but common sense should prevail. Most assignment chairpersons around here ask if you are connected in some way to a school, and they try to avoid booking conflicts such as hiring a referee at the school where they teach. In Illinois when you make your dates available to work the state tourney you can exclude schools you are connected to.
An airborne shooter is defined in the high school rule book as an offensive player who has released the shot but has not returned to the floor. An airborne shooter is considered to be in the act of shooting. If a defender interfers with a shooter's follow through, it is a foul unless the offensive player's arm breaks through the defenders vertical space. In summary if the defender stops a shooter's follow through in the shooter's vertical space, a shooting foul should be called.
This was asked by steve w in his June, 2012 questions. Here is the answer I gave him: First, the rule. Your position on the court is based on where you stood (or touched last). So after a rebound a player establishes himself out of bounds (one foot or two), and then lifts a foot through an imaginary plane along the baseline, he is not inbounds until his foot hits the floor inbounds - no violation for breaking the plane by the player throwing in the ball. Secondly, there is the dominent philosophy of basket officating called, "Advantage Disadvantage" which holds that you should only stop the game if an opposing player caused a change in A/D. So, you pass on uncontested palming in the backcourt for example.
I really don't watch enough NBA basketball to form an opinion. I know there is a lot of negative chatter about Joey Crawford. The all-time worst has got to be Tim Donaghy who disgraced the profession and went to prison for his misconduct. There is a website which keeps statistics on NBA refs - do you believe that? They track how many fouls, techs, etc. each referee calls. You can kind of tell who the league respects by their designation (main vs crew) and also how many games each has worked. Here's the website: www.nbastuffer.com/referee_stats
I have never seen that, but I would administer as follows: I would not allow a disqualified player to shoot the free throws. Since free throws are administered in the order the fouls were committed, 1) bring in the sub, 2) the sub shoots the free throws awarded o the fouled out player, 3) team b shoots the technical fouls, 4) team b gets the ball at half court.
If the ball is being pushed in opposite directions by two opponents, as in an attempted shot never leaving the shooter's hand but being blocked by a defender it is a held (jump) ball. If the ball is knocked loose by a defender out of the shooter's hand and the shooter recovers the ball then no call. If the defender marginally touches the ball and the shooter maintains continuous posession and lands back on the floor then it is travelling.
You might not understand what the ref is doing. Many refs will not call 3 seconds unless it materially affects a play. This philosophy is called advantage / disadvantage, and is particularly useful at lower levels. Don't be the parent or coach who wants a turnover because a low skilled player is camped out in 3 seconds (or an unguarded dribbler carries the ball in the backcourt). They will call it if the ball gets dumped in there, but if it is not material forget it. If you find a ref at a lower level who calls everything in the rule book, everytime, you have a ref who will ruin every game
The ball is NOT out of bounds when it crosses the imaginary plane above the sidelines or end lines. The ball is out of bounds when it touches an object or player or other person who is out of bounds. So if Team A's player leaps in the air from in bounds, crosses thru the imaginary boundary in the air and does not touch anything and saves the ball by hitting onto a Team B player who is standing out of bounds, the ball should be awarded to Team A. However, if Team A's player is the last to touch the ball before it hits something out of bounds beside a player on Team B (such as the bleachers, or an out bounds referee, or the bench, or the part of the floor which is out of bounds), then Team B gets the ball.
A foul committed after the ball is "dead" is ignored by rule book unless it is flagrant or intentional. The official must determine which happened first, the time out request or the foul. If the foul was committed first, they should report the foul and then the official should ask the coach if they still want the time out or not. If the time out was granted first, and the foul was neither intentional or flagrant then the foul is ignored. If the foul during a dead ball is intentional or flagrant it is a technical foul.
There is nothing in the Ferderation of High School rule book, but common sense should prevail. Most assignment chairpersons around here ask if you are connected in some way to a school, and they try to avoid booking conflicts such as hiring a referee at the school where they teach. In Illinois when you make your dates available to work the state tourney you can exclude schools you are connected to.
The clock should be started when the ball is touched by an in-bounds player. If the ball is thrown out of bounds without being touched, the clock should not have been started. In your scenario, the clock should be reset to the exact time before the throw-in and the ball should be awarded to the other team for a new throw-in.
Like most things in life it is not difficult to be a referee. However, it is very hard to be a good referee. Here are some of the reasons: 1) You need to study the rule book - it takes a long time to really understand and internalize them, 2) once the rules are understood it takes a long time to decide which rules should not be enforced at which levels/situations, 3) since there is a learning curve, you have to make a big commitment to it before you can be well compensated, 4) even if you develop into a good referee, you have to be lucky enough to be "discovered" and/or mentored by people in a position to help and promote you, and finally you have to have a different occupation that allows you spend your time investing in ref'ing. Oh yeah, you also need thick skin.
You are allowed to screen or block out if you get to a space before your opponent leaves his feet to get to that spot. It is no different than blocking out on a rebound.
Technically a coach is not allowed on the court and the penalty is a technical foul. But here is where experience matters. If a coach breached inbounds but was not inyerferring with the play he should be gently directed back to the bench. If he is in the way of a play or a ref then a T should be called. Even on a time out I would not let a coach come onto the court - instead I would walk back to the bench and the coach always follows. A coach puposely charging a ref on a court is the coach's way of showing up a ref and should noy be tolerated - but does not have to be a T.
I try to NOT call 3 seconds unless it changes the advantage/disadvantage of the play. If I am underneath the basket as the lead official and someone is camped out in the paint, I will try to talk him out. However, let's suppose that a player camps out for more than 3 seconds and a shot from far away goes up, and the player in the lane gets the rebound I will call a late 3 seconds violation - because his being in the lane for more than 3 seconds allowed him an unearned rebound.
In your scenario, assuming the ball is in the frontcourt for all of time the player is in the lane and that there was no shot previous to the airball, it should be called a 3 second violation - in my mind a perfect late call, because if the other team gets the rebound play on. If the guy camped out in the lane gets the ball, then whistle a turnover.
Oh one more clarification: the 3 second area is the rectangle outline from the free line to the end line. It does not include the semi-circle where a free throw shooter must stand. That is the top section of the "key" is not in the 3 seconds area.
I have officiated some house leagues, summer high school leagues and travelling basketball tourneys where a shooting foul is awarded 1 point and the ball, and a common foul after 7 team fouls also gets 1 point + ball. At one point in time there was a proposal in college ball that a team would have the option of shooting free throws OR the ball. Doesn't seem like anyone talks about that anymore. I think the pros like close games and slowing the game down with fouls compresses the score, but those last 2 minutes sometimes takes 20 minutes.
If you shoot a jump shot and someone touches your waist, it normally disrupts the flow of your shot, and therefore should generally be called. BUT, this calls for your judgement - if you think the touching causes the shooter to alter the rhythm of his shot then call a handcheck. Other than in a shooting situation, I suggest these guidelines for calling a handcheck: foul if 1) the handcheck dislodges the dribbler or postplayer, or 2) the handpressure is constant on a moving opponent.
Placing the ball on the floor repeatedly denies the other team the opportunity to grab the ball and run. Here's how it should be handled. After the second occurence, the ref should stop the game and issue a "delay of game warning" against the team, and ask the scorer to register a warning in the book.. If they do it again, the offending player should be charged with a technical foul.
All players inside the 3 point arc (shooter and rebounders) cannot cross the vertical planes into the rectangle (otherwise known as the three second area) until the ball touches the ring. If a rebounder violator is on the same team as the shooter, the free throw is whistled dead and the point cannot count. If there was to be another free throw, then the players line up and it is shot. If this was to be the last free throw, then the ball is awarded to the opponent for a throw in.
If the defensive team (non-shooter) steps into the forbidden area, then the referee holds his fist straight out indicating a delayed violation. If the ball goes in, it counts. If the shot is missed, it is retaken.
If the offense and defense both simultaneously violate the free throw lane restrictions, then the shot is whistled dead it does not count. If there was to be another free throw shot, it is taken. If the free throw was to be the last when opposite teams both violate, then the shot is whistled dead and it goes to the possession arrow.
I would immediately throw the player out of the game with a flagrant technical. In Illinois, the player would also be suspended for the next game.
The officials NEVER remain at the scorers table. Directly from the NFHS rulebook: The official scorebook shall remain at the scorers table througout the game, including all intermissions. Note, it says the official scorebook, not the official.
If there is a violation on the first of two free throws, the first free throw is whistled dead and unsuccessful and the the second free throw will be administered. So, no the violation on the first free throw does not cancel the second.
Unless the mechanic changed this year, the lead official is never to bounce to the player on a throw in with one exceptionL if the ball goes out of bounds on the sideline very close to the endline (baseline), the the lead can bounce the ball for a throw in close to the endline. If however the ball will be put in play on the endline, the lead should always hand the ball to the thrower. I know in the NBA they bounce the ball for an endline throw-in in the backcourt, but not in high school ball (except by lazy officials).
If A is standing out of bounds, and a ball that was in bounds touches him before hitting the floor out of bounds, A is considered to have caused the ball to go out of bounds.
Yes, in the definition section of the rule book it states that "during an interrupted dribble the out bounds provision does not apply". So a player can step out of bounds and come back in and resume a dribble or pick the ball up, as long as stepping out of bounds was unintentional. In high school going out of bounds purposely is a violation, in college it is a technical, and in the NBA there is no prohibition.
The rule book states that a player is out of bounds if any part of his body is touching out of bounds or touching a player who is out of bounds. It also states that an airborne player has the geographical position of where he jumped from (until he lands). So the player does not by rule have to have two feet in bounds, just one as long as the other is in the air and not out of bounds.
It is not a rule, but rather it is a mechanic perscribed in the NFHS Handbook. It used to be that the trailing referee would hand the ball to the free throw shooter for the first attempt and the lead (on the endline) would administer the rest of the free throws. Maybe ten years ago, it was changed so that the proper mechanic is for the lead official administer all free throws from the baseline. Most referees cannot advance if they do not follow the perscribed mechanics. Most importantly, mechanics set a consistent way of working a game, so that you can easily work with people you have never been assigned with, and secondly, following perscribed mechanics sets a professional expectation for coaches and assignment chairpersons to evaluate (in addition to judgement, hustle, and rules knowledge).
A throw-in begins when the ball is placed at the disposal of the player who will throw it in. As you describe the play, the offensive player does not have control of the ball until after fumbling it. The ref should either ignore the fumble or whistle the play dead right away and bounce the ball to the in bounder properly. Violation = bad call.
Let's suppose that a player takes two hands on top of the ball and pushes it to the ground - double dribble. You see this sometimes when a player falls and use the ball to break the fall. What if a player takes one hand and pushes the ball to the floor ? That is an interrupted dribble until the player picks it up, or can continue the dribble with one hand (like the Globetrotters). If instead, he picks up the ball, he has used up the dribble and must pass or shoot from there.
Simple answer: no. So again (Advantage Disadvantage), if the post player is setting up down low and swatting the defender's hands and they are in a minor way pushing or leaning on each other, then I am ignoring it or telling them hands off. But as soon as the ball is delivered to the post, and he received it because he swatted the defender's hands away from a legal guarding position, then I am calling an offensive foul.
Great question. In my career I have called very few T's on coaches. My approach is two-fold. 1) if the coach is working me up and down the court, I will talk calmly on a dead ball (never stop officiating on a live ball - ignore the coach). I will say, "coach, your constant rants are unwarranted, and may prevent me from doing my job. If it persists without specifics, I will be forced to call a "T" and have you seatbelted to the bench". 2) if the coach wants/needs to discuss a particular play on a dead ball, always in front of the bench, don't let the coach come on the court - walk him back to the bench, he will follow: a) I ask the coach what he saw on the play. If I saw something different, I tell him and explain that if I saw it his way, I would have called it his way, but I didn't.. b) If I saw the same thing, but believe he is misinterpeting a rule or a mechanic, I explain why I am calling it the way I did. For example, if a coach tells me that a player is camped out in 3 seconds and I have ignored it, I explain that I am applying advantage/disadvantage and will only call 3 seconds if it is material to the play - so he may be technically right, but that is my call. c) If I have booted the call, I admit it to the coach and tell him that since calling (or ignoring) a play, I have replayed it in my mind, and think I made an error. They always stop the harrassment when you admit an error. It is tough when you are young - they treated me differently as my hair grew gray than when I first started out - sure, my judgement improved, but also coaches usually try to push around young officials. In summary, ref the best you can. Be honest with yourself about blown calls, and have the strength to explain your calls - if you can't explain your calls, you should not be wearing the stripes.
Rule 7 in the NFHS rule book is the chapter on Out of Bounds and The Throw In. Section 1, Article 2b states, "The ball is out of bounds when it passes over a rectangular backboard. By excluding fan shaped backboards it means a ball passing over fan shaped is NOT out of bounds.
There is no provision for a referee to overrule another official in the Federation rules book, however in practice one official is designated as the referee in a crew with a responsibility to resolve simultaneous calls. My experience is that before the game this situation is discussed between officials. I think it is important to get the call correct, but each referee has his own area to watch. So if I make a call that one of my partners sees a different way I want that official to approach me, tell me what they saw, I give my perspective and then I decided if I will overrule my own decision. That way I can defend the final outcome. So, a few principles: 1) a ref should be watching their own area - that is why you have 2 or 3 of them, 2) there is some overlap and sometimes a second look sees something you can miss, and 3) officials should decide how they will consider overruling each other before the game. Based on your description (that the shot was clearly made from inside the 3 point line), regardless of how the ref's changed the call they apparently got it wrong.
The ball is always awarded to the team opposite of the one who touches the ball last. The rim or backboard does not erase the last person to touch the ball. So in your question the defensive player is the last to touch the ball (ever so slightly) and the ball goes back to the shooter's team.
I am not sure what you mean by trap. Are you saying the defender steps closer and prevents the dribbler from moving because of the outstreched arm of the dribbler? Then yes, the defender can move as long as he is entitled to the spot on the floor. But if you are saying the defender somehow holds the arm of the dribbler it is a common foul. If I have missed the point of your question rephrase it and I will try again.
The direction of the pivot foot vis a vis the nonpivot makes no difference as you can pivot 360 degrees on your pivot. If your right foot is the pivot you can step with your left and then jump picking up your right foot off the floor and it is legal. I think of it this way - if you were not allowed to ever lift your pivot foot how could you shoot a layup? Direction does not matter, you can make this move as a fadeaway and it is still not travelling (but your coach might bench you!).
1) For most officials, the block/charge is the toughest because the action happens so quickly and to really get the call right, the official should not be looking at the dribbler (ref's would say, officiate the defense). It's natural to watch the offense, but a clear, solid call happens when the official focuses on the defense. 2) for young refs it is striking the balance between being an over the top tough guy vs getting walked on for being weak. 3) especially at the lower levels, deciding what not to call is hard to learn - my generalization is that new refs overcall violations and are reluctant to call fouls.
Not sure what situation you are asking about. If this does not answer your question please rephrase it. So, if the free throw shooter has the ball and the defense commits a violation in a one-and-one, the referee should hold one arm parrallel to the floor to indicate a delayed call. If the free throw goes in then the violation is ignored. If the free throw is missed, then the one-and-one is restarted from the beginning. If the ball was not at the disposal of the free throw shooter and a violation occurs, it should be ignored and the process reset.
There is no provision in the NFHS book which grants disputes between referees except that the official designated as the "referee" (as opposed to official 1 and 2) has the responsibility to resolve uncovered issues.
When two referees disagree, the way it should work is as follows: Official 1 makes a call. Official 2 sees it a different way and the two officials privately discuss it. Official 1 needs to be convinced. If official 1 decides official 2's call is the correct one, then official 1 should signal the correct call, and be prepared to defend it with the coaches.
The act of boxing out is properly executed when you occupy spaces on the floor by moving your feet and obtaining the verical rights to a space before your opponent can legally obtain that space. Proper technique might include "sizing up the opponent" behind you (that is with light contact feeling where and when the opponent might try to get around you), and moving your feet to "block" him out from moving closer to the basket, most typically on a rebound. When you block out, you do not have the right to stick your rear end out and dislodge a player behind you. Good refs will call a foul on the inside player for dislodging the player behind him, AND the same ref should call a foul on a player who pushes an opponent under the basket out of contention for a rebound. Good defense, like proper rebounding is played with your feet (just my opinion).
I worked a summer league several years ago and for the first half of a couple games the coach made the players on defense lock their arms behind their backs. They could not steal, swat or defend with their hands. So what con you do? MOVE YOUR FEET and try to legally deny offensive players spots on the floor. Only when a shot went up could the players use their hands. The players were certainly frustrated but it forced moving their feet.
In youth basketball it is common to be biased against the biggest kids. It is unfair, but it happens. If there is a silver lining it is that your son will be well prepared for AAU and high school rough play. Although unfair, it is better for your son to toughen up then for him to not develop because he is currently bigger than his teammates. Read the book, "Play Their Hearts Out" for a real story of the next LeBron who was the best player in the country in middle school, but flattened out at 6'2" as a senior in high school.
In theory, swatting a defender's arms is a violation. If a defender has the right to a space, swatting his arms is a foul. But if the defender is handchecking (or forearm checking) an experienced ref would either call a foul on the defender, or not call anything. Instead he could warn both players to keep their arms off each other. Unfortunately, often the offensive player gets caught swatting because the ref missed the initial armcheck.
Sounds like a bad call. The center for Team A does not establish team possession by tipping the ball, but by knocking the ball out Team B gets the ball. Because neither team had possession and B got the first ball the arrow is set for Team A's possession on the next one.
Actually, a dribble ends when you put two hands on the ball. But even if you have not dribbled already, putting two hands on the ball on the floor is normally called double dribble.
When the ball goes through the basket it is a dead ball and anyone can call timeout until the team takes possession (even after a made basket by your team while on offense, until your opponent picks up the ball).
After the first of 2 free throws there will not be team possession, so either team can call time out until the ball is at the disposal of the shooter for his second free throw.
The simple answer is that if the contact you are describing is material it should definitely be called a foul. A defender can use such contact to hold an opponent or to indicate which way a play will go (which is why handchecks need to be called more often).
I don't know how else to say this...in high school rules, we NEVER award free throws on a player or team control foul. We also NEVER count the basket if a player control foul was called on the shooter.
That is why it does not matter if the team is in the bonus - in any case, free throws are not awarded on a control foul. It is by definition in the rule book - a control foul (team or player) never earns free throws.
Maybe you are confused by the terms - notice I did not say charging fouls instead of control fouls, because charging is just one type of foul committed by the offense. For example, free throws are not awarded for an illegal screen by the offense (as of about five years ago).
There are no allowances for a crossover. Travelling is traveling. Here is the travelling rule:
1) if you catch the ball with both feet on the floor, either foot can be the pivot.
2) if you catch the ball in the air and land simultaneously on both feet, either can be the pivot. If one foot hits the floor first it must be the pivot. However, if you catch the ball in the air hop on one foot then land on both feet, neither can be a pivot.
3) once you have established your pivot foot you can lift the pivot but must pass or shoot before the pivot returns to the floor. (and of course you cannot hop on your non-pivot foot if the pivot foot is in the air).
People want to say that you get 1 & 1/2 steps or you get 2 steps. Neither of these are correct. It depends on whether you are entitled to a pivot or not, and then you can lift up the pivot and onto your non pivot but you must shoot or pass before the pivot hits the floor.
Here's the jump ball rule: Neither jumper shall 1) touch the ball before it reaches its height, 2) leave the circle until the ball has been touched, 3) catch the jump ball, or 4) touch the ball more than twice.
These restrictions are in place until: the ball contacts one of the eight non-jumpers, an official, the floor, a basket or the backboard.
I played in men's leagues until about 10 years ago. Being a ref gives you a unique perspective and helps your game. But like all good things they come to an end. I am recently retired from officiaiting (and quit ballin about 10 years ago).
After a made basket, or after a timeout after a made basket the team with the ball can pass it from one out of bounds player to another, and then throw it in bounds (along the endline only). Here's the play:
Team B is pressing with no defender on the out of bounds thrower in player A1. A2 is on the other side of the paint but he is guarded by B1. A1 has the ball out of bounds. A2 steps out of bounds leaving the defender B1 no one to guard. A1 passes the ball to A2 who is out of bounds. A1 steps in bounds and receives the pass from A2.
In NFHS rules, when player A1 reaches through the plane on team B's throw in WITHOUT touching player B1, the referee shall issue a delay of game warning on the first occurence. If it happens the second time, it is a technical foul.
If player A1 reaches through the plane and hits the ball or the player, then it is a technical foul immediately. So, the direct answer to your question is a technical foul.
I did not see the play, but you are quite right that if a player is out pf bounds (any part of his body is touching the line or beyond the line) and he touches the ball, it should be whistled out of bounds and a throw in awarded to the other team.
In NFHS there is no such thing as a loose ball foul, This is very simple... in the judgement of the officials is the batted ball a legitimate "try" for a goal? I would never call a batted ball anywhere other than in the paint a legitimate try. So, a half court tip, batted ball would earn a common foul, not a shooting foul. You are correct in that you must have player control established to be in the act of shooting. But it is not the same as a fellow player being fouled to shoot a one and one on a made shot while in the air, because it is a foul on one player - either he is in the act of shooting, *which ends when an airborne shooter hits the floor, or he isn't in the act of shooting.
The defender always has the rights to his vertical space whether he hits the ball or not. Based on how you describe it, I would see it as a good block, no foul.
Since awarding the 2nd free throw was in error, and even if it was correctible, play resumes from the point discovered, and all points scored and fouls remain intact. So the ref should have dropped the ball and play on. There is no provision to use a jump ball to fix a misapplication of a rule.
As a practical matter, awarding a jump is less awkward than the chaos of handing it correctly.
No, by rule a coach has only 2 places he/she can be: 1) standing (or squating) in a 14 foot area out of bounds, in front of his/her bench known as the "coach's box" in states that have adopted this optional provision, or 2) sitting on his/her bench.
In practice, unless a coach is over-bearing to the officials or is gaining advantage (for example standing near the endline and directing players) most referees are not going to focus on a coach outside the box. The penalty is a direct technical foul and most refs do well to ask or warn the coach before calling a T.
If a coach is called for any direct technical foul, he/she is "seatbelted" to the bench and loses the ability to stand in the coach's box for the remainder of the game.
Yes there is a time limit because the player has been disqualified on the 2nd technical which is treated no differently than a player being assesed his 5th foul - the coach has 30 seconds to replace the player. A cohesive ref crew should handle it ideally like this: 1) the ref who calls the 2nd T should be a different official than the one who calls the 1st T, 2) the ref calling the 2nd T should report the foul and inform the coach that the player has been disqualified, 3) a different official should escort the disqualified player to the bench, and 3) inform the coach that he has 30 seconds to replace the player, and 4) ask the timer to begin a 30 second count. If the coach is so mad that he refuses to send a replacement player in, then one the official should warn the coach of delay of game, and if necessary assess a technical on the coach. Hopefully it never gets to this level, but it could.
In a two man crew there are occasions when the trail official should call three seconds. Imagine the ball in the corner near the sideline and endline (baseline), on the lead official's side of the court (the lead is the ref on the endline). The lead should drift toward the sideline with the body angled away from the basket. That leaves the trail official responsibility to look into the paint, and possibly call 3 seconds. By the way, I rarely called 3 seconds in Varsity games - because I think it is the perfect advantage/disadvantage call. That is even though someone is camped out for 3+ seconds, I would only interrupt the game for 3 seconds if that player received the ball or captured the rebound.
I believe that is a made up rule. The only way to construe a violation would be to consider it unsportsmanlike, but that is a stretch. The way to handle it is if there is a dead ball after the team was counting approach the coach and ask if the coach considers counting in that way sporting. Maybe he will stop them, but as a ref I would not call a foul.
No it is not correct. There are 2 restrictions on non-jumpers beside the one about being adjacent if the other team wants in. Once the referee is ready to toss the ball, and until the ball is tossed, a non-jumper shall not 1) move around the circle, and 2) move onto the circle from away. So a non-jumper can stand behind an opponent as long as he does not infringe on the opponent's right to his vertical space.
The inbounder is considered a player (not a sub or a bench personnel). If the ball has achieved inbound status (in your case when the ball is touched or deflected by an inbounds player) and then the inbounder-player who status is still out of bounds, the ball is awarded to the opposite team of the inbounder, assuming the ball hit the inbounder first (before hitting the floor, bleechers, out of bounds referees, spectators).
There is no definition in the NFHS rule book of a live or dead player. There is live/dead ball definition, but not player. Team members are defined as players, substitutes or bench personnel.
OK, we need some common sense here. Normally after a time out and the warning horn sounds, a player would be denied entering the game. This is to eliminate delays due to substitution gamesmanship (in pro hockey for example the home team has "last substitute"). But in the case where a coach has 30 seconds to replace a fouled out player this rule should not, and does not apply to either team. If common sense prevails, the officials should let A-6 in the game.
There is no provision in the mechanics or rule books for NFHS. In fact, although one official is designated as the "referee" and the other two are "umpire 1" and "umpire 2", the referee is not enpowered to overrule the others. Here's how I handled this: In the pre-game I asked my partners to agree to this. If they think I got the call wrong, approach me and tell me what you saw, and I will decide whether to overrule myself based on your input. That way, we could undue a really bad missed call, but if I passed on a call for my own reasons (advantage disadvantage for example) I could ignore my partner's input. Also, if I changed my call I could better explain to a coach why it was reversed. Most of the people I worked with agreed to use this system.
According to theriches.com beginning NBA referees make $150,000 and senior officials make up to $550,000. In every game, one official is designated as the "referee" and the others are "officials". In NFHS, the referee has certain additional duties such as picking who will toss jump balls, giving pre-game instructions etc.. But the "referee" is not supposed to overrule the other two officials. I suspect that in the NBA, senior officials might have additional duties such as travel arrangements, meetings, training, rule advisories, etc.
No. The correct protocol when a player fouls out is this: the scorer normally informs the ref that the player assessed with the last foul has fouled out. The ref lets the coach know that the player has fouled out and he has 30 seconds to send in a substitute. Once the fouled out player leaves the court and the substitute is beckoned in, then the free throws can start. By the way, if there are other subs at the time the player is being replaced, then all of them should be beckoned in. Normally you would wait until there is only one free throw left (or a one and one) before sending subs in.
Team possession ends when the shot goes up. If the ball touches an offensive player's hand, but he does not direct or control the ball, team possession has not been re-established and therefore no backcourt violation.
I am not a coach, but I will venture an opinion and a recomendation.
He probably goes to a position on the floor, "feels" the defender, and backs into the him. One thing refs are taught about contact low in the blocks is to call a foul on the player who dislodges the opponent. So if he sizes up the defender and then uses his rear end to create space, the refs will call a foul for moving the opponent, I know, big players are taught to use their bodies to block out and create space, but when it is so obvious that he is dislodging the other player it is a foul. So, what is a big strong player to do? Bluntly speaking, use his feet more than his ass. Create space by hustling to a place closer to the basket, then hold your ground and let the defender dislodge you for a foul.
How does a big player get lighter on his feet? Running and jump rope are the best ways I know. Sounds like somewhere along the way someone taught him lazy block out technique if he is constantly in foul trouble.
Have you spoken to his coach about the foul trouble? I bet the tape shows that he is dislodging players without moving his feet.
A referee can order the scorer to change something in the book, if and only if the offical has direct knowledge that there is an error in the book. For example, if the ref knows a shot was called a 2 point shot but the scoreboard and book have it as a 3, the ref can get it changed. So in your question it depends on whether the coach brought something to official's attention that the ref knew without doubt was correct, he can change it. But if the ref got bullied by the coach into changing something the ref is not 100% positive then the ref should not work any games anymore.
The coach (assuming he has not been seatbelted with a technical foul prior to this) is entitled to stand inside the coach's box, which is out of bounds. If the coach was out of bounds or his foot was on the line the collusion, though unfortunate, is not a technical foul. If the coach was squarely in bounds which casued the collision then it should be called a T. Borderline, I would pass.
In NFHS all flagrant fouls (personal or technical) result in 2 free throws plus the ball at half court. In addition, the player charged with a flagrant foul is immediately disqualified. You never shoot 1 and 1 on a flgrant foul.
This is a close one. Who is entitled to a space on the floor? Answer: the player who gets there before another player leaves his feet to get to the same space. If in your example the defender is "riding" your backside in lockstep towards the basket, each of you are entitled to the straight line toward the endline. So unless either player leans into the other and dislodges, I would say incidental, legal contact.
In NFHS there are players fouled in the act of shooting, common fouls, player control fouls, team control fouls and technical fouls. A player attempting to tip the basketball into the hoop is fouled in the act of shooting and will get 2 free throws, unless the ball went in - the bucket counts plus 1 free throw.
It has to be this way because if it was considered a common foul (and assume the team is in the bonus) and the ball went in, then you would have to count the basket and award a one and one - which would be crazy and severe.
No T. The coach is where he should be, and there he is considered out of bounds - so when the ball touches him it is OB. However, it borders on unsportsmanlike conduct if the coach purposely grabs it to prevent the other team from making a play. In any case I personally would not call a T.
Of course. Common sense dictates that a referee should not distract any players. But there is a large grey area. How about a referee who "talks" players out of three seconds violations, or a referee who verbally counts to 5 seconds on a throw in (proper mechanics call for a hand count, not verbal) or a referee who yells "hands off" to avoid calling a hand check. Some people say each of these acts represents inappropriate coaching - others say each one is good "preventive officiating".
In my opinion, verbally saying "foot on the line" is beyond mechanics and unnecessary.
There is no provision in the rules for an official to overrule another, and there is no prohibition against it. One of the officials is designated as the referee, the others are umpire 1 and umpire 2. The referee has to settle all disputes not envisioned by the rule book. As I have said before, I always wanted my partners to approach me if they disagreed with my call and allow me to change my own call if my partner created doubt or if they clarified the play for me. But I always wanted the right to not change my call as well. By the original caller changing his call he can explain it to the coach adversely affected. Good referees have this discussion before the game and talk about how they are going to handle a disagreement on a call. Generally, this should not happen too often because each referee has a specific area to watch and while there is some overlap calls usually fall within one ref's primary responsibility area.
1) If the foul is called as a flagrant technical, then 2 shots + the ball,
2) If the foul is a common foul, and then a technical foul also is called, then:
shoot the free throws in the order the fouls occurred. So clear the lanes for a one + one. Then any player shoots the 2 Ts. Then ball at half court.
High school technicals are always 2 free throws, unless they are cancelled out by simultaneous technicals by both teams.
Indirectly referees and the home school have the authority. In NFHS rules there is a function called home management. It is usually the athletic director, or a representative of the AD. The rule book states that in the absence of a designated home management person, the home team head coach will assume that function.
Directly from the rule book: The officials shall penalize unsporting behavior by player, coach, substitute, team attendant or FOLLOWER.
Further the book states: ... the officials may rule fouls on either team if its supporters act in a way to interfere with the proper conduct of the game.
It also cautions the officials to be careful applying penalties so as not to unfairly penalize a team.
When I officiated, I never engaged in an expulsion dialog with a fan. I simply went to home management (the AD) and said something like, "the guy in the third row with the blue shirt has to go. Home management always complied with my request and escorted the unruly fan out (or used an on site police officer to be the escort) and the AD often apologized about a overzealous home team fan.
Other than technical fouls, there are no free throws awarded when a team with possession of the ball commits a foul.
If it is in the possession of the player committing the foul, then it is a player control foul (NO free throws). If a player's team has possession and a foul is committed by a player on that team without the ball it is a team control foul (and again, NO free throws).
A team or player control foul is never awarded free throws, and it makes no difference if the team is in bonus.
Also, you might be asking if a charge is the only player control foul possible? The answer is no. A player with the ball might push, trip, hold, etc a defensive player and an offensive player without the ball might set an illegal screen, push, hold, etc in addition to charging. All of this is relative to NFHS rules.
I think you are asking this question: A1 gets the ball from the opening tip in his backcourt and shoots the ball into B1's basket (his oppponent's basket). How is it scored?
If this is your question, the answer is count the basket for team B, and A gets the ball for a throw in in their backcourt.
Let me guess ... you were sarcastically clapping at the ref's call that fouled you out? Sounds like a thin-skinned official!
In NFHS rules a disqualified player must remain on the bench or be sent to the lockerroom with supervision. So, while on the bench it is possible to receive a T. Not only is the player assessed with a T, but the coach is assessed with an indirect T.
Read my answer to the above question, and add this. If I was observing an official who called a foul on a half court tip a shooting foul, I would do all I could to keep him from working a varsity (also a sophomore) game. I will grant you that a player can go through the habitual shooting motion of a shot anywhere on the court and if fouled it could be a shooting foul, even from the back court (as in the end of the quarter), but a tip from half court is unskilled and undeserving of a shooting foul - I would always call a halfcourt tip foul a common foul.
No, by rule they cannot, but it depends (and the following discussion assumes the offensive player does NOT have the ball):
Coaches teach the armbar technique but if the arm in the back prevents an offensive player from moving to another legal spot, it is holding.
If the armbar is set within the verticality the defender is entitled to, and the defender's forearm is used to keep from being pushed backward by the offensive player then there is no foul, or an offensive foul.
I always looked to see if the armbar moved foreward to push the offensive player off his spot, then it is a foul. If the armbar did not push the opponent, I would not call it
Rule 6 Section 3 Article 3... Teammates shall not occupy adjacent positions around the center restraining circle if an opponent indicates a desire for one of these positions before the referee is ready to toss the ball.
OK. Got it. A player with the ball could push, hold, slap, trip, and charge for player control fouls. A team mate of the player with the ball could do the same plus illegal screens. All of these are control fouls with no free throws.
The placement of a throw in after a time out is the same as the placement after a violation or a non-shooting foul. The spot should be perpendiclar to nearest sideline oe endline. So imagine a diagonal line from the elbow of the free throw line to the corner of the sideline/endline. If the ball was on the sideline area of that line then find a perpendicular line to the sideline. If it is on the other side of the diagonal then the ball goes to the endline. If the ball was in the paint, then it is taken out on the endline at the closest line of the paint - never on the endline directly under the basket.
In NFHS rules replay is not to be used in ordinary season games. However, replay use is permitted in a state's playoff series under these conditions: 1) the state has authorized its use, 2) the replay is used to determine timing issues on the last shot, and whether it is a 2 or 3 point shot. So in high school ball during an in season game you cannot use replay. In college, the officials use it a few times a game for many situations (flagarant or not on a hard foul, timing issues as to whether a shot was launched before time expired, who is the correct free shooter, etc.)
In NFHS rules, the game is officially over when the referees leave the confines of the court so the first thing is for the referees to agree there are no game ending issues and if so quickly make your way to the lockerroom. I can't speak for everyone, but usually after the games I worked we would have a short post game wrap up in the lockerroom, maybe 10 - 15 minutes to discuss any issues or constructive criticism of each other. Depending on who were my partners we might stop for a beer on the way home as well. It used to be that in Illinois certified referees could rate other officials so I would get online and rate my partners for that game. Also, if there were any reports to the state office due (required if any player or coach was disqualified by technical fouls) I would go online and fill those out, If I had to fill out any reports to the state I would also send a copy to the assignment chairman who put me on that game.
The rule is clear and everyone in the gym knows a foul is coming. It is a real dilemma. An intentional foul has a very severe penalty, but calling a common foul seems against the rule. This can only be fixed by a rule change - perhaps the fouled team gets a choice of free throws OR the ball. It is the coward's way out but I don't see a solution.
I know the NFHS rules but I found this online from SB Nation regarding college reviews:
...now the following types of plays will be eligible:
shot clock violations in final 2 minutes or overtime
out of bounds plays in final 2 minutes or overtime
two point vs three points
which player committed a called foul (to make sure the correct player is assessed)
flagrant foul calls
NOTE: this list does not include intentional so if this correct it would seem to be excluded. maybe someone can post a more definitive answer?
Out of bounds calls should not be missed because in a 3 man crew, every line has an official with primary responsibility. If this really is a trend it is not good.
Carrying the ball is one of ways the rule book states that a dribble comes to an end. So the very next dribble should be called as a double dribble if the player carried the ball prior to the subsequent dribble. My opinion is that refs have allowed too much carrying to go on - the dribbler gains too much control of the basketball if you let a player cup or turn over the ball.
The coach can argue mixup all he wants, but it shouldn't matter. Awarding an unearned free throw is correctible, but all points and fouls earned before the error is detected count. In this case, an extra free throw was not awarded - the referees simply misled the lane rebounders, and that is NOT correctible. So, argue til you are blue in the face, and call it lousy officiating, but the play and points by rule stand.
There are five correctible errors in the NFHS rulebook: 1) failure to award a merited FT, 2) awarding an unmerited FT, 3) permitting the wrong player to shoot a FT, 4) attempting a FT at the wrong basket, & 5) Erroneously counting or cancelling a score. Unfortunately in your scenario, the error was in announcing 2 free throws (he never progressed to awarding the erroroneous 2nd freet throw). So, the error is not correctible, the basket counts, and now belongs to the opposing team. Tough break because of bad officiating.
There are 5 correctible errors in the rule book and failing to remove a player with 5 fouls is NOT one of them. The free throw stands and the ref has egg on his face for rushing and not making sure his partner was ready. But it is not correctible.
In the violations section of the rule book regarding free throws, it states that the free throw shooter shall have neither foot beyond the vertical plane of the edge of the free throw line which is further from the basket.
This restriction ends when the ball hits the ring, backboard or until the free throw ends.
So no, a player cannot soar through the air leaping from the semi-circle to dunk a ball - he would have to cross the vertical plane of the free throw line.
The 3 second area (the paint) is defined by the outer edge of the lines. Any part of your foot on the line puts you in the paint.
The outer line on the court is out of bounds, so on a throw in the player who is throwing the ball in could step on the line before throwing in as long as the foot does not step on the court.
NFHS does not specify any post game punishments as these are left to the state organizations. In Illinois, if a coach or player is disqualified because of 2 technical fouls or 1 flagarant technical foul, he is suspended from participating in the next scheduled contest.
Betond these, the state reserves the right to impose stiffer sanctions if necessary.
Time stops when an offical: signals a foul, held ball or violation, stops play for an injury or score inquiry, grants a time out, or responds to the scorer signal. SO, unless the referees stopped play with their whistle PLAY ON and the basket should count. That is why players are coached to stop on the whistle, not the buzzer.
If the officials did stop play when they heard the buzzer, it sounds like a foul should have been called. Either way, as you desribe it officiating mistakes were made.
If two fouls of the same kind occur simultaneously by opposite teams the free throws offset and are not shot. In your example the fouls are different and are administered as they occurred. So clear the lanes, shoot the one and one. Go to the other end and shoot the 2 Ts. Ball out of bounds at half court.
When you catch a ball in the air you are considered to be in the court where you jumped from. So you might think that this play is a violation, but there are two exceptions ... 1) by a defensive player intercepting the ball, and 2) by either team on a throw in.
Traveling in college is defined the same way as in high school. So the answer to your question depends on how the player caught the ball and if he is entitled to a pivot foot.
1) if you catch the ball with both feet on the floor, either foot can be the pivot.
2) if you catch the ball in the air and land simultaneously on both feet, either can be the pivot. If one foot hits the floor first it must be the pivot. However, if you catch the ball in the air hop on one foot then land on both feet, neither can be a pivot.
3) once you have established your pivot foot you can lift the pivot but must pass or shoot before the pivot returns to the floor. (and of course you cannot hop on your non-pivot foot if the pivot foot is in the air).
So to answer your question with an illustration, imagine catching the ball midair (or ending a dribble) your right foot lands first (that is your pivot) then you step forward with your left foot lifting up your right, and before your right hits the floor you shoot a layup. This is a legal basketball move.
People want to say that you get 1 & 1/2 steps or you get 2 steps. Neither of these are correct. It depends on whether you are entitled to a pivot or not, and then you can lift up the pivot and onto your non pivot but you must shoot or pass before the pivot hits the floor.
From the federation rule book, "During a dribble the ball may ve batted into the air provided it is permitted tp strike the floor before the is touched again with the dribbler's hand(s).
So, in you question you could retrieve the ball after it strikes the floor or continue dribbling PROVIDING you have not palmed or carried the ball.
It is confusing because there are different philosophies of how to call these situations. The rules clearly state that a foul intentionally committed should be called intentional and administered with 2 free throws and the ball at point of interruption.
Most referees will avoid calling intentional fouls if the foul is not severe, the player attempted to go after the ball, and/or did not grab the player. Here is the dilemma...if you wait to make sure a foul is a foul when the whole gym is expecting one then it looks bad not to call an intentional and play can get rough. If you have a quick whistle on first contact it looks like you are aiding the losing team in their attempt to foul their way back into the game.
I wish I had a better answer for you. This is one of the toughest judgement calls in the game.
During normal play, when a player catches the ball in air he is considered to be in the court he alighted from. Suppose Team A has the ball in possession in A's frontcourt. Player A1 jumps from the backcourt, catches the ball in air and lands in the frontcourt. This is a backcourt violation.
HOWEVER, there are two exceptions: 1) if a defensive player jumps from his backcourt, catches the ball and lands in his frontcourt, and 2) on any throw in.
In your question, it is a throw in and so the exception applies. No backcourt violation.
Yes, the ball becomes live when it is at the disposal of the thrower on a throw in. It is illegal to have 6 players when the ball is live. Should be a technical.
BUT, it is also poor officiating by the referee crew, because one of the throw in officials' partners should be counting players (after time out for example) and preventing this situation from arising.
In high school rules, a player can retrieve the ball after a "legitimate" shot attempt without hitting anything. For example, you could retrieve an airball shot even though the ball has not been touched by another player. However, f the throw to the backboard is not a shot attempt and a player purposely throws it off the backboard, I would call that travelling - much like tossing the ball forward to yourself and moving down the court.
In a local baseball league, they implemented a rule that if a player or parent was tossed from a game, the player was ruled ineligible until the parent umpired a game at his/her level of choice. The league has a handful of letters of apology from parents who tried (quite unsuccessfully) to umpire games.
If I might be so bold as to suggest that you become patched for basketball in your state, attend summer camp to get trained, and work some games next year. You will gain a better understanding of the game, probably help your daughter's game and you will watch her play a little calmer.
No, it is absolutely not ok. A ref must be above reproach, and when there are lingering bad feelings a good ref will put the history behind them. So first, if a ref swallows the whistle - in rec leagues it is common so the games end quicker - then report the ref to the league's assignment chair. Not calling obvious fouls almost always leads to rough play as the players feel compelled to protect themselves. 2nd, a ref should be fired for starting the game with an unearned T.
The dribble ends when the ball is knocked away, and so does player possession. So, if you pick up the ball and dribble it is not double dribble. You can pick up a ball with two hands as long as you are lifting up. If you push down with two hands it is double dribble.
A player who establishes valid court position has the air rights vertically. In practice, if an offensive player clips his knee on the defenders chest, it normally will not be called.
Technically, you cannot ever slap an opponent's wrist or hand unless it is on the ball. But in practice, good referees would be focusing on the palyers' torsos because that is where a meaningful foul is most likely to happen.
Let's suppose that I saw the play with exact clarity. The player who slapped your hand "caused" the ball to go out of bounds, and unless the slap was forceful or flagarant, I would call the ball out (violation not foul) - last touched by your opponent and give your team the throw in.
No, you will not find intimidation in the rule book. There are unsportsmanlike fouls which may overlap intimidation. There is one local team which places two captains at the helf-court line during warm ups with their team in a few lines facing them. The captains move side to side with the players chanting in cadence. The drill ends with the team diving forward toward midcourt shouting in unison either "team" or "defense". It is very intimidating to the other team, but absolutely not illegal.
That is true, but if a referee called everything technically the game would be unplayable and unwatchable. For example, the rule used to be that on a throw in, if the player didn't take the shortest path onto the court after throwing in the ball in, it was a technical foul. I never called it that way, and never worked with anyone who did. Finally, NFHS changed this action to a violation and now it gets called. Likewise, any carrying the ball, by rule, is an illegal dribble. But if a player is bringing the ball up from the backcourt unguarded and is turning the ball over, I am not going to call that until he is guarded. (Officiating principle = Advantage Disadvantage).
I get that you are annoyed that a team can get back in a game by fouling a team who cannot shoot free throws, but while I think intentional fouls need to be clarified, I believe most people do not take your literal interpretation of the game and don't mind "going for the ball" common fouls as a legitimate strategy. Again, I say a shot clock would remove much of the reason to purposely foul.
I understand your point. In nearly all sports, coaches make moves that help determine the outcome of games; time outs, call in plays etc. I think the NFHS needs to decide if they want to completely eliminate the "everyone in the gym knows it is an intentional foul" being ignored or called as a common, or leave it unevenly called as it is. In the past they have tried to issue guidelines, but the gray area for interpretation is a mile wide. Don't know how much noise they hear about this issue, but NFHS has not settled on a good solution yet.
The rules states that a player cannot be in the paint for 3 or more seconds, so technically when you get to three it is a violation. HOWEVER, as I have stated before I rarely called 3 seconds. 1) I tried to talk players out, and 2) it is the perfect advantage disadvantage call. That is I only called it when it made a difference tp the play - for example a player getting an offensive rebound after camping out.
That's a good idea too. But playing devil's advocate, many coaches like the strategy of being able to slow the game down when you're losing by a few points by putting the other team at the line and stopping the clock. Late fouling in a tight game shifts the game to a chess match (and free throw pressure cooker) and I believe many coaches like having the ability to get back in a game. This wouldn't be such an issue if we had a shot clock for the entire game.
Fifteen minutes before the game, the officials are to take their positions on the court. An Umpire (U1 & U2) stand on the sideline at approximately the free throw line extended. While walking to their positions, all officials are to look for obstructions, short throw in areas, proper bench locations, and proper coaches boxes. The referee stands at half court. The umpires are tasked with 2 things: get a count of the players and look for faulty or illegal equipment (metal clips in hair, unauthorized uniform variances, etc.). The referee takes the player count from both umpires and between 10-12 minutes before gametime the referee checks the scorer's book to 1) ensure that the book has at least as many entries as there are players warming up, and 2) that the starters are designated in the bokk no later than 10 minutes before game time. Once the book is verified, the referee calls the umpires together along with team captains and coaches. The referee normally conducts the pregame with mandatory state-required admonishments. Then the referees go back to their positions and right before the nationa anthem stand in front of the scorers table.
I never found a coach trying to take advantage of equipment except there have been over or underinflated balls that I have adjusted. Many referees carry an inflation pin in case they have to let some air out of a game ball.
In NFHS rules you NEVER award free throws for a player control foul UNLESS the foul is also flagrant (which I have never seen). It doesn't matter if the team is in the bonus.
As far as over the back, you should know that there is no foul defined in the rule book for over the back. Illegal contact (pushing someone from behind, for example) is either a common foul, a team or player control foul, foul in the act of shooting, technical, intentional or flagrant. If the ball is loose (also not defined in the NFHS rule book) - I think you mean no team control - then illegal contact is a common foul and free throws will be shot if in the bonus.
In Illinois, in each championship weekend (2 for boys & 2 for girls) there are 6 officials. Each official works 2 games, but if one were injured they could press one from the other crew into action. In addition, the tournament usually attracts several high level officials as spectators so there are plenty in reserve. Every state does this differently.
If NFHS rules are being enforced, leaving the bench to join the fight is a flagrant technical foul resulting in immediate player ejection. However, if more than one player from a team leaves the bench the other team shoots only 2 technical shots even though multiple players are ejected from the game. In Illinois all the ejected players are also suspended for the next game. AAU and other league rules may differ.
I was taught in this scenario to call a foul as soon as the post player starts a dribble or makes a move toward the basket (or shoots) . If the post player gives up the ball, pass on the foul call.
Yes it matters. On sideline throw-ins, the referee inbounding the ball should between the player and the opponent's basket, so the ref is behind the most likely foreward movement of the play.
In 2 man officiating the referees are to be opposite of each other and the throw in will occur to the inside of the ref.
In 3 man crew, I have worked with some officials who position themselves between the basket and the throw in player on the baseline, but I think this positioning should only be used when the throw in on the baseline is near the sideline.
These postions have developed out of the objective to put the ref in the best possible position to see the play. That is why referees are allowed to bounce the ball to the throw in player - you get to stand back and have a wider view.
These practices seem picky but doing them correctly is pre-requisite for advancing. The evaluators I have encountered expect spot on mechanics. Being out of position on a throw would lower your rating.
The ball is still inbounds, unless the player who is out of bounds touches the ball. So, in your question, assuming the out of bounds player is not touching the ball ... PLAY ON!
Let me preface my answer by reminding you that I am an advocate of the Advantage Disadvantage philosophy of officiating basketball. This philosophy advocates not stopping play to call a foul or a violation unless that action causes a change in the balance of the defense/offense posture.
So, I tended to call very few 3 seconds in varsity basketball. For me it was usually a late call, as in a player is camped in the lane and gets the rebound, I would call a late 3 seconds call. If he didn't get the rebound play on. But since play goes so fast, premptive officiating would suggest warning the player to get out of the lane before having to make an advantage/disadvantage decision.
This is controversial in 2 ways: 1) you are right that at the varsity level players should not be "coached" by the ref's, and 2) not everyone believes in advantage/disadvantage.
I would warn a player once to stop him from camping out in there, but I am an advocate of advantage disadvantage officiating.
You can buy the basketball rules books (rules, case book, officials manual) at the National Federation of High Schools website:
You can look at the NBA rules at their website:
You can download NCAA rules at their website:
No this move is not legal because even though the offensive player has the right to the vertical space once he has attained a legal position on the floor, he cannot initiate contact by slapping the opponents arm.
The defensive player can penetrate that vertical space but cannot make contact in that space. So, a defender can reach into the vertical space of the offensive player to try to steal the ball as long as there is no contact. But if the defender reaches into the vertical space and initiates contact it is a defensive foul.
But what if the offensive player initiates contact inside his legally obtained space? If for example, the offensive player jumps vertically and crashes into the defender - foul on the defender.
But what if the offensive player slaps the defender's hand? The offensive player caused the contact, and most likely it occurred outside the offensiive player's vertical space, so it is a foul on the offensive player for initiating contact.
I know that many coaches teach the dribbler to put up a bent arm as a barrier to the defender but when the dribbler initiates contact by pushing or slapping the defender it is a player control foul on the dribbler. Most often, the dribbler is NOT entitled to the space where the defender is reaching in. In my opinion, this is not called enough.
By the way, there is no defintion in the rule book of "reaching in". If reaching in was illegal, you could never steal the ball from a dribbler.
It depends on 1) your current size and potential size and 2) your level of fundamental skills (dribbling, shot accuracy, speed, passing, basketball IQ, selflessness, and most importantly the needs of your team).
Team control ends when there is a try or tip, an opponent secures control, or the ball becomes dead. Hitting the hand of player B does not constitute control so I would say if the ball is picked up by team a in the backcourt it is a violation.
Some officials carry a small gauge, but most referees hold the ball head-high (about 5 3/4 feet high) and let it drop. It should bounce up to the official's elbow when the upper arm is held parallel to the floor. Higher bounce than the elbow means over-inflated, bouncing under the elbow means it needs more inflation. The referee usually checks the game ball after making sure the book contains at least the number of players who are warming up (and the starters are designated), around 10 minutes before gametime. Try it sometime when you are on a wooden floor. Note, if the game is being played on an indoor soft rubberized floor (as in underclass games in the fieldhouse), the ball will need more air than on a wooden floor.
Yes, it is a backcourt violation because team A never lost team control.
A legal screen can only be set when the screener is stationary, except when both players are moving in the same direction. So, because you have not stopped (become stationary) it seems like it is an illegal screen UNLESS you are both moving in the same direction, he is behind you, and as you slow down he runs into you.
I certainly encourage you to report this. Most people officiate because they love the game, and if you love the game you have a duty to do anything in your power to advance the avocation of refereeing. I suggest you find out who ran the AAU tournament and voice your concerns. Because of your background, meaning you have training and experience and do not appear to be simply a biased, ticked off untrained parent, the AAU tournament director should be willing to tell you who the assigner of the officials was for the tournament and you should contact him/her directly.
I think most states would not allow an official complaint at the state licensing level because AAU tournaments are not normally state sanctioned contests even though they only hire "patched state officials".
A player is allowed to fumble the ball after gaining possession, and then dribble if he has not dribbled heretofore. BUT, the fumble has to be unintentional in the eyes of the official.
A two handed bounce is double dribble. So is dribbling a second time after holding the ball. Both are violations.
Team control ends when the ball is in flight on a try or tap for a goal. Since there is no team control, there is no backcourt violation. Play on...
Yes, of course the ref can. As I have addressed in prior questions, there is a Home Administration function (usually the athletic director, but always a representative of the home team). Home Administration is responsive to the referees needs including safety and timeliness. If a referee asks Home Administration to remove a fan, they will do it. Each referee has a different tolerance so it rarely happens. But if you get personal, or disrupt the game you should be tossed.
I never had to call a game a forfeit. If a team was late, I tried to work with the athletic director to understand why the visitors are late, and what a reasonable start time might be. The rule book calls for a technical foul toul to be called if the coach has not submitted the roster and designated the starters no later than 10 minutes before start time. Again, I recommend that no official invokes this rule. Once a team was stuck in Chicago traffic and my partner told the coach when they arrived 45 minutes late that the game would start with a T. Horrible mistake.
Technically speaking, it is a technical team foul for not coming onto the court in a timely manner after a time out or start of a quarter or overtime. Preventive officiating would dictate giving the team a little leaway to come onto the court, but if a coach refuses then a T should be called.
Sounds like the ref was confused because if the possession team is slow to come on the court it is legitimate to put the ball down on the throw in area and begin a five count. However, when the defense refuses to come out, T is the appropriate penalty, not putting the ball in play without the defense.
The rulebook states that a dribble ends when the dribbler picks up the ball, the ball is touched by an opponent,or the ball becomes dead. It is a violation to dribble a second time unless it is after an attempt at try, a touch by an opponent, or a pass or fumble which touches another player.
So, if you dibble off a players foot and retrieve the ball and resume dribbling it is double dribble. If you would have passed the ball hitting a teammate and then retrieve it no violation.
Answer to your question is no.
If the player controlled the pass and purposely knocked the ball down, then it began his dribble. If the player reached out to catch the ball and the ball fell to the ground, then it is a muff and did not start the dribble. It is a judgement call by the official.
you can tap a ball. the main prohibition is that you cannot punch the ball with a fist.
Technically slapping the arm of an opponent is a foul. Inpractice, a referee should use his judgement to determine if that action caused a turnover. If it did, the foul should be called.
In your question, you ask if A calls a foul which makes me believe that you are playing without an official. In pickup games, often rough play is tolerated and calling a slap on the arm is considered weak sometimes.
If the ball goes over the top of a rectangular backboard in either direction it is out of bounds.
If the ball goes over the top of a fan backboard it stays in play.
I don't think there is a perscribed rotation as to which referee should put the ball in play. As a practice, after one of my partners called a technical foul I would have him be the official to put the ball in play, thereby putting him opposite of the table and benches.
I think your question is after a technical, is the throw in official the new trail? And the answer is yes. On any sideline throw in, the lead should come to the trail half of the court, making the throw in official the trail.
from the NFHS rulebook, " A player is in control of the ball when he/she is holding or dribbling a live ball inbounds". There are a few exceptions such as a jumper on a jump ball obtaining the ball before it touches the floor or a non-jumper.
Notice it does not exclude jumping in the air nor does it require 2 hands on the ball.
I don't like the pro game because of how it has evolved, especially in the east. Post a big player on the block, slow the game down to half court, never full court press, winners are too predictable and players turn on/off hustle instead of playing hard the entire game. So I am with you. if I had to pick a player whose game I admire it would Kevin Durant. I despise how Wade, James and Bosh colluded to put their team together, and could have started a league-ruining trend. I like the college D1 game. There are upsets and coaches can piece together unique game plans to try to win. Much less predictibility.
I call it bad preventative officiating. One of the officials should count the players after each time out, and prevent the play from starting until you have ten players on the floor. However, once the play starts the fifth player cannot come back in until there is a dead ball whistle.
There is no provision for a violation or foul for talking or shouting. There is only one way it might be construed a foul and that is behavior that is considered unsportsmanlike. But to me, shouting "ball, ball, ball" would not rise to the level of unsportsmanlike.
The ref should stop the game right away if a player is injured or in imminent danger. The ref can delay the play stoppage to allow the offensive team to complete a play if there is no immediate danger to any players. The refs are also to stop play immediately if there is a vision issue such as lost contact lense or glasses knocked off someone's head.
In your situation, I would have let the offense finish the play - BUT if the offense was driving to the basket and then kicked the ball back out out to reset the play, I would have stopped the game,
Normally, contact after a blocked shot would be considered incidental. So unless the contact is intentional or extremely harsh I would let it go.
Unless it has been changed most recently the rule book states, "No logo, marking, lettering, etc. is permitted on the backboard, backboard padding, or basket."
You are correct. The ball is dead after a goal is made, when it is apparent that a free throw is unseuccessful, when it is to be followed by another free throw or a throw in, a held ball occurs, a player/team control foul is called, most of the time when the whistle blows, a free throw violation, or a time out.
The ball becomes live on a jump ball when it is tossed by the referee, when it is at the disposal of th thrower on a throw in, or on a free throw when it is at the disposal of the shooter.
The ball is awarded opposite the team which touched the ball last before the ball went out of bounds. The referee is considered part of the floor where he/she is standing.
Team A dribbles the ball off the ref's foot and then it goes out of bounds, Team B gets a throw in.
In practice, an official can eject a fan anytime. Here is how it should work, At every game there is a home management function. That may be athletic director, coach or administration. If an official needs to eject someone, he/she should ask home management to eject the fan. If the official requests an ejection, home management should comply. If the official is out of control or unreasonable the home management should take that up after the game.
In my experiences, home management never refused to comply with an official's request to eject someone. If they did, I would have refused to continue to work the game.
I can honestly say I have never noticed that.
If team A loses possession because B tips the ball, but A does not reclaim possession (going thru fingertips does not establish possession) there would be no backcourt violation.
If the player was pushed it should be a foul. If the player was not pushed, it is traveling when they hold the ball and any part of the body hits the floor beside the hands or feet.
Probably the right call is a late-called foul. It seems wrong to penalize the offensive player when the defender started the problem.
The referee is supposed to stop play for any immediate danger to a player or eyeglasses and/or contact lens becoming broken or dislodged.
If a player is injured but not in immediate danger and the other team has the ball, the offensive team is allowed to complete the play (finish a drive to the basket, run an attack play). As soon as the offense backs out the ball or stops progressing to a play the ref should stop play to allow the injured player to be tended to.
The answer is yes. A rule change for this coming season (2014-15) in NFHS rules states: Arm sleeves, knee sleeves, lower leg sleeves and tights are permissable as long as they meet the color and logo restrictions.
Doesn't sound like a correct call. The violation should have been ignored OR a pushing foul should have been called.
A kick is the intentional contact with the leg or foot. As you describe it sounds unintentional, and therefore not a kick.
OK, here is what I saw. He gets the ball while both feet are planted. So either foot can be the pivot foot. He lifts up his left foot which makes his right foot his pivot foot. he then steps onto his left foot and lifts his right foot. At this point he cannot move or slide his left foot nor can he touch the right foot on the floor. From here he must shoot or pass. Looks to me like a legitimate basketball move and no violation.
It is hard to understand this fact about traveling: it is not illegal to lift your pivot foot per se. If you could not lift your pivot foot how could you ever shoot a traditional layup?
No, the points should not be cancelled because the free throw ended "when it is certain the try was unsuccessful". The points were scored after the free throw ended, but before the error was recognized. When you are able to correct an error, "points scored, consumed time and additional activity, which shall occur prior to the recognition of an error shall not be nullified.
I agree that it is unfair to the lower levels that they get new refs learning the craft or old burned out refs just collecting a check, sub-par coaches who are just learning to coach, and parents who are learning to appropriately advocate and cheer for their kids.
I have always said this: we should pair varsity-capable refs with young, new refs to work and learn the craft in freshman games. Assignment chairman would say that the purpose of summer camps where refs work high school summer leagues is to train new refs and sift out untrainable officials. So if you think the officiating is spotty during lower level season play just wait until your kid plays in summer leagues officiated by training camp referees. Good luck and know that the quality of the players, coaches, officials and parents will improve as your daughter progresses.
There is no restriction on a throw in of a player bouncing the ball - unless the referee interprets the bouncing to be a pass which first hits out of bounds. If it is clearly a dribble, no issue.
The buzzer does not make the ball dead. Players should play on until they hear a whistle. Once possession has been established or the basket made the refs should blow the whistle, stop play and check with the timer to find out why the horn sounded.
No it is not a proper box out. Boxing out is when a defender moves legally to a space that an opponent is trying to get to, thereby boxing him out. Using your arm to create space (whether by the offense or defense) is a foul.
There are no specifications in the rule book as to when a referee asks home management to eject a fan. It is very subjective, and it does not have to have a warning. I drew the line at personal attacks - to another fan, the other team, my partners, or to me. I never minded if fans boo'd my calls, but as soon as it got personal or vial, that's when I had someone ejected.
Let's stop beating around the bush here. Tell me what you did to get tossed out of your son or daughter's game.
Was it the Michigan State player? If it is the play I was looking at it was a close call, but I probably would have called traveling.
So here is the play: A player catches the ball with both feet in the air. Going backwards the left foot comes down first (it will be the pivot). Then the right foot comes down beyond the 3 point arc. He lifts the left (pivot) foot. At this point he is ok if he alights or stays on the right foot and then passes or shoots. As soon as his left foot touches the floor or he hops on his right it is traveling.
A player is considered to be in the court position where they are standing or if in the air, they are in the court where they have alighted from. So to answer the question, the receiver jumped from the front court, caught the ball in air and landed in the back court. This is a back court violation.
There are two exceptions to this rule: 1) on a throw in, and 2) by a defender while intercepting the ball.
Assuming that you have an excellent understanding of the rules and good judgement as to when to apply them, then if a coach has a disagreement and you feel it needs to be addressed:1) approach the coach. "Coach you disagree with that call. Tell me, what did you see?"2) after the coach tells you, you say "Coach, I saw that the play happened a different way. Here is what I saw … . but if the play happened the way you saw it, then I missed it."3) don't be afraid to admit that you booted a call occasionally. "Coach, in replaying the action in mind, you might be right and I may have called the wrong thing." But don't become a perpetual apologist. 4) if the coach perpetually is riding you and is never satisfied with your explanations, then you need to tell him/her that you have heard enough. their complaints are getting in the way of you doing your job. Some officials tell you to hold an open hand up after you have warned him - they call this officiating to the tape because if you end up throwing a coach out of a game, the assigner can look at the tape and corroborate your review which included a verbal and hand warning.5) have thick skin. the tough guys who are too sensitive about valid criticism never advance very far in officiating. In 20 years of high school officiating I have thrown out of games only 4 or 5 coaches.
As for parents, my best advice is to ignore them. If they shout inappropriate things (threats or derogatory remarks) have home management eject them. No good will come from trying to educate a biased fan who has little grasp of the rulebook. However, I have answered questions after a game from parents who approach respectfully.
A1 can dribble pass or shoot because B1 knocked the ball away and A1 no longer had player possession.
I searched through the NBA rulebook and could not find a foul called "showboating". There is a broad definition of unsportsmanlike conduct, but nothing specifically called show boating.
The jurisdiction of the officials ends when the score is approved and the referees leave the visual confines of the court. Each state decides, with bylaws, what penalties will be assessed for player and coach ejections. There is no rule or penalty in the NFHS rulebook that an official can assess after a game is over. So the official should write up a game report and send it to the state (or league) for further adjudication.
Correct. The possession was never given to white so the arrow still stays white.
Players should play until a whistle is blown. In your scenario the refs made two mistakes: 1) if there is not an advantage by the team in possession when the buzzer sounded, they should blow the whistle and find out what the timekeeper wanted, and 2) once they let the game continue then they should count all activities until the whistle.
The assignment chairperson should never entertain your tape. Your coach probably tapes the games and the coach (or athletic director) should deal with the quality of the officiating. In my opinion you are getting in too deep, without a real understanding of how the officials are trained. For example, they may see what you are yelling about but they may be making an "Advantage Disadvantage" judgement (this is discussed in a previous question).
Sounds like an over-sensitive ref who bullies when he is wrong. Look, all of us boot calls. As long as the ref is trying and not vindictive I can excuse blowing any call during a game. I have done my share, especially early on.
However, the ref's advancement into higher levels is dependent on NOT blowing key calls. The way a ref avoids blowing a call is to be prepared and understand the rule book better than anyone else in the gym, having played or watched enough games to morph experience into good judgement, and to understand the mechanics of officiating so that you position yourself correctly to have the best possible angle to see the action.
Having said all of that I would caution you (or any parent) from becoming the overindulgent father or mother who takes on evaluating officials when you have no training or understanding what is involved. You should let your school's coaches take on the responsibility of giving feedback to the officials and the assignment chairperson who evaluates referees and books officials. If you don't, and I have seen this a hundred times, you will alienate yourself from the other parents, and you will lose credibility with your daughter's coach ahead of when you really have an issue. If you are too vocal, it may hurt the way your coach views your daughter. As a coach once told me, "you pick the player, you pick the parent."
Just to punctuate the point, I also umpired baseball games in Illinois - high school, house and traveling leagues. I can honestly say that it took me three years to settle in on a consistent correct strike zone. It just takes experience. So in my first year, my strike zone was inconsistent. During that time I was not put on Varsity games. So in middle school and even freshman games expect spotty officiating.
Unfortunately, the best officials referee Varsity games, and in some ways the best ref's are needed at the lower levels. You may be seeing young inexperienced ref's or lazy guys just picking up checks. If your daughter advances you will see better officiating.
Free advice is sometimes worth what you paid for it … so here it is. Cool down during her games or don't attend if you cannot help yourself. You are going to ruin the experience for your daughter.
Here is the definition of "held ball" in the rule book:
A held ball occurs when 1…opponents have their hands so firmly on the ball that control cannot be obtained without due roughness, or 2…an opponent places his/her hands on the ball and prevents an airborne player from throwing the ball or releasing it on a try.
In the first instance, control cannot be obtained. In the second instance the offensive player starts with control but then loses the ability (i.e.. control) to pass or shoot. So I think you are splitting hairs - each of you are right and wrong in definition 1 vs 2.
If it is "incidental", that is if the offensive player does not gain an advantageous benefit from the contact, then I would pass on the foul. BUT, if the defender is knocked back, or his legal forward momentum is disrupted to the detriment of his defensive positioning, then it is a player control foul (formerly called "a charge."
Once the shot is released the 3 second restrictions are lifted. It is ok for a late whistle to call 3 seconds after the shot goes up IF the violation happened before the shot, and the official is just late in calling it. But it is an error if part of the 3 second violation occurs including time after the shot is released. The restrictions start again after the offensive team obtains team control with the ball in the front court.
It is also possible to be legally in the paint for 5 seconds with the ball. Here is how: a player catches the ball in the paint. You are counting 1, 2 . Before you get to three, the player dribbles toward the basket. You restart the count. If the player drives directly and shoots before the new 3 seconds then it is a legal play. If the dribbler reverses directions or stops, then it is three seconds.
3 seconds at the varsity level is a good example of preventive officiating. When a player is camped out in the lane, I want to warn him to move out a couple times unless he has gained the ball or a big rebounding advantage. "Move out, or keep moving out of the paint". After a couple warnings, then call it constantly. In my experience, the higher quality players need 3 seconds called rarely, whereas in middle school you need to call it regularly.
I do not have any special knowledge of AAU league or tournament rules. I do know that age verification is a perpetual problem in traveling basketball.
The ball should be spotted at a point near the foul. It only comes back to the original thrown if it is not touched or there are no fouls called before the ball is out of bounds.
The referee (as opposed to the other officials) has the responsibility to decide matters upon which the timer and scorekeeper disagree. Furthermore, "the referee shall make decisions on any points not specifically covered in the rulebook."
There is no explicit provision in the rule book to address the situation you describe. So, the referee has to decide what would be consistent with the intent of the rulebook.
I would consider it a simultaneous violation. If there was to be a second free throw, then shoot it. If not, go to the alternating possession arrow.
However, if the opponent committed the violation BEFORE the free throw shooter released the ball then the first is penalized and the second is ignored.
No, he should not be allowed to pull all of the players from the lane. The only requirement is that the opposing team of the free thrower must put a player on each of two lower blocks. This rule is in place because after the last free throw it takes two players to get the ball in play.
What should have happened is the coach should have been warned for a delay of game and if not responding then an indirect technical foul. The team opposite the free thrower must put two players on the lower block.
The referee is considered part of the floor, so if the player catches the ball with 2 hands after dribbling and bouncing off a referee, it is double dribble.
If this was not the rule then the following could happen:
if a player was trapped with an official nearby, he could bounce the ball off the official and get a new dribble. This is not the intention, so the referee is part of the floor, and a player DOES NOT get a new dribble after bouncing off the ref.
Usually this would be incidental and not called, UNLESS your arms flailing whack the defender.
This is an unusual play with the foul on defensive player A being called. Normally, a second foul could is ignored as long as it is unintentional because the first foul made the ball dead. If the offensive player is on the ground and fouled, then steps into a charge the charge would be ignored.
But here is an interesting twist. What if Offensive player B is an airborne shooter fouled in the act of shooting by defender A but plows into defender B before touching the floor. The ball is not dead when an airborne shooter is fouled until they hit the floor so technically this could be called a simultaneous foul and go to the possession arrow. In practice, most officials will call the foul on defender A and ignore the subsequent player control foul (charge).
I was taught that the only times to blow your whistle before administering a throw-in is after a time out or before the resumption of play to start a new quarter.
I would also blow the whistle if there was a long delay before a normal throw-in (such as confusion at the scorer's table), but certainly not on most normal throw-ins.
There is no prohibition against bouncing a ball off an opponent. EXCEPT if the ball is thrown maliciously and then it would be an unsportsmanlike technical foul. Referee's judgement as to what severity would cross the line.
This is horrible officiating and there is no provision to fix this, so the referee has to do the best he possibly can do. If I were the referee and I thought that my crew erred and the ball really hit the rim, I would think the following:1) the whistle blew and stopped the clock before it started when the official thought the ball missed the rim. Therefore, no time should have expired.2) if there is an inadvertent whistle during a time when there is no possession, it can only be resolved by the possession arrow. Reset the clock to 1.2 and go to the possession arrow.3) I think that is the best that can be done in a lousy referee-caused situation.
There is no specific provision in the rule book as to how loud players are allowed to be. It is a judgement call. If I thought it was excessive I would stop the game, warn the coach and warn the players and then start issuing technical fouls. Unfortunately, this behavior might intimidate young players, but at the high school level it probably will not work very well.
If the player comes down with both hands on the ball it is double dribble. If the player has only one hand on top of the ball it is a dribble and he cannot dribble again.
No. After returning to the floor the player is no longer in the act of shooting. It should be a non-shooting common foul.
1) it is ok for a player to do a layup with a bent knee UNTIL the knee contacts a defensive player who has obtained legal guarding position. 2) It is ok for a player to bend over into a space UNLESS the offensive player contacts an opponent who has legally obtained legal guarding position. 3) There is no such rule as over the back (this is a pet peeve of mine). It is perfectly legal for an opponent to leap high enough to reach over the top of a player as long as no illegal contact is made. When the game announcer tells the fans that an "over the back" foul was called he really should be saying "there was a pushing foul, or illegal use of hands", but you will not find in the rule book over the back or reaching in.
When a shot is in the air and time runs out the quarter ends when the try ends. So the instant the ball becomes lodged, the try is over and so is the quarter. The team with the possession arrow gets the ball to start the next quarter.
If there are two violations by players in lane spaces the 2nd is ignored.
If the 2nd violation is from beyond the arc both are penalized and you go to the possession arrow.
I believe that although the free throw ends when the ball hits the backboard, it is still a violation if the free thrower fails to hit the ring.
I do not have an answer for you, just a possible excuse. NCAA players are so quick and crafty that even veteran officials make errors on traveling calls.
It is a violation for a player to leave the floor for an unauthorized reason. The ball is dead when the player goes out of bounds and is awarded to the opposite team.
There is no provision in the NFHS rulebook for calling a game because of a lopsided score. The only reason I would call a game early is if continuing the game presented a safety issue to the players, fans or officials.
High school varsity games pay about $60 - $75 for single game assignments. Underclass double headers (i.e. 2 freshman games) pay $80 - $100. I know that some states will give the referees a percentage of the gate for well attended, big match ups. These are rough numbers - it varies by location, parochial vs public, suburban vs city, etc.
No. After a ball is deflected out of bounds the throw in should be a spot throw in. If there is a throw in after a basket, and a team calls time out, then the offense can still run the end line.
If the ref calls for the ball you should give it up. If you defy the ref it could be construed as disrespectful by a thin-skinned official. So yes, it could be called. BUT I never have made that call and I advise refs not to.
A good resource is the Illinois High School Association's website. It publishes online a list of officials' associations. Every official must belong to an association and each association maintains lists of members. In addition, most associations have an assignment chairman whose function is to help member officials get bookings. www.ihsa.org
You can also call local park districts and ask who books their officials. There are a few guys who run businesses which hire referees for games, and often the park districts hire them to supply officials.
If the bench encroached on Team B's ability to make a play then yes, I would call a T. But normally, the desperate attempt will not occur anywhere near the bench and I would ignore the potential infraction.
According to NFHS rules, a referee can alter the scoreboard if, and only if he has direct knowledge of the error and correction. So, in this case you start with 7.6 minutes. The throw-in team has 5 seconds to avoid a violation. So theoretically the violation should have been called with 2.6 seconds. You might think that this is the end of it. However, it takes longer to administer a throw in than 2.6 seconds, allowing both teams to set up. So unfortunately I think the game ended. This is why I dislike running clocks in close games.
You need to establish front court possession before you can have a back court violation. Answer is no.
Yes it is legal. In the rule book it is called a screen (assuming it is legally obtained).
The NBA is different than NFHS because in high school players are supposed to wait until the ball hits the ring or backboard. In the NBA they can move on the release.
Yes you can in NFHS rules as long as the shot was a legitimate try. If the referee deemed it not to be a legitimate shot it should be called traveling.
There is no shot clock in NFHS rules. In NCAA men's rules it is a violation for a team to fail to make a try for a basket AND have the ball touch the ring or flange before 35 seconds.
Notice the rule states "a try …" which means that a pass would not qualify even if touched the ring. Not sure what pro rules state.
In the NBA rulebook team possession ends when there is a legal field goal attempt OR the opponent gains possession. So until the defenders gain possession the 24 second clock keeps ticking.
On a spot throw-in, a player must stay within a 3 foot area along the out of bounds boundary. That three foot area extends from the out of bounds line all the way back to the wall, or the first obstruction (bleachers, table, etc.).
So to answer your question, as long as the player does not step in bounds before releasing the ball, he can take as many steps forward short of breaching the out bounds line.
If you obtained legal guarding position and you were dislodged off your spot by an opponent it is a team control foul on your opponent's team.
Why couldn't he pick up the ball? Even after a dribble, a player can fumble the ball and recover it as long as it is accidental and there is no purposeful dribble. Having said that:
A player can box out anywhere on the court as long as he moves to a spot before the opposite team player moves toward that spot.
As I have stated before, refs can ask the home management function to eject fans from the gym. The refs have to be careful because after the game they may have to answer to the assignment chairman after the coach or principal complains. Anyway, during a game if I wanted to eject a fan I would not let the game proceed until the fan was ejected.
Yes. A sub can be brought in on any dead ball when the clock is stopped. The only exception is if there is to be another free throw after this one subs are to wait until the next to last free throw before being waved in.
There is no provision in the NFHS rulebook which addresses any foul after the game. Each state has bylaws which might impose penalties for unsportsmanlike conduct outside the auspicies of the on-court officials. The referees' jurisdiction ends after they have validated the score and they leave the confines of the court. If something happened after the end of the game I was officiating I would write an incident report and send it to the state for action or disposal.
I was suggesting that if he dropped the ball unintentionally (called a muff) he could pick it up. If he tried to pass it and then changed his mind and dropped he he could not pick it up but he could block someone out if he blocked out legally, To block out legally, a player has to legally obtain a position before the opponent alights or moves toward the spot he occupies to block out. In other words if I get to a spot before you leave your feet or step into that spot then I can block you from that spot by occupying it.
In NFHS rules, the three second restriction is lifted when a legitimate try for the basket goes up. Note that it does not say "when the ball hits the ring". So the first part of your question's answer is no, there is no three second violation because once a try goes up there is no team possession anymore. Secondly, in NFHS rules any player can retrieve an air ball shot as long as it was deemed a legitimate try. Once retrieved, team and player possession are reestablished, and he gets a new 3 second count if he is still in the lane.
It is impossible to say or even generalize/ For example the University of Illinois, a D1 Big Ten school had scholarship player Nnanna Egwu who was born in Nigeria and didn't play basketball until 8th grade. He was considered a "project" when he was offers a scholarship. He had a good, not stellar collage career and he is trying to play pro ball but has of yet not hooked on with a team in the NBA. By the way, in college Nnanna played at 6 foot 9. The problem with being 6'2" and 165 lbs is not many schools will take on a "project" who hasn't played much ball. A lot depends on how much time a player has to develop and where the development takes place. Seems to me that most well recruited middle schoolers or even high schoolers play for very competitive AAU teams. If you want to be the best, you have to compete with the best.
No. The 5 second count is independent of the game clock. On a thrown in, the team has 5 seconds to RELEASE the ball. Here's the rule:
"Once the throw in starts, the ball shall be released on a pass directly into the court before 5 seconds has elapsed."
NOTE: The throw in starts when the ball is at the disposal of throw in player. So when the throw in player lets go of the ball, the 5 count restriction is satisfied.
This is a tough question. There was a Wall Street Journal article which addressed the grey areas of what an assist is. Here is a quote from that article:
"The NBA statistician's manual says an assist should be "credited to a player tossing the last pass leading directly to a field goal, only if the player scoring the goal responds by demonstrating immediate reaction to the basket." It sounds simple enough. As assist is a pass made to a shooter who scores. But when you try to apply this definition during a game, it gets murky. There are no details about how many steps shooters can take after receiving a pass; nothing about shot-fakes, head-fakes or pivot moves and no hard guidelines on how much time can elapse between the pass and the shot.
If the player had two hands on the ball and pushed it to the ground it is double dribble. If the play had one hand on top of the ball and pushed it to the ground it would be a dribble. If he then picked the ball up, he could not dribble again.
While it is not ideal, a game can begin with 1 referee. It seems that it happens occasionally at the lower levels but rarely at the Varsity level because if the Varsity crew is short a ref, they will invite a ref from the pre-lim (usually sophomore) game to stay and work the game with them.
When I have had to ref myself, I find that play under the basket gets rough because the players know that you can only follow the ball. You also miss a lot of line calls.
In NFHS rules a player can recover a try even if fails to hit the basket ring or the floor as long as it is a legitimate try. NCAA and pro rules are different.
To have a backcourt violation a team must first achieve possession in their front court. There is no team possession on a throw in.
So, in your scenario Players B1 and A2 touch the ball, but neither have achieved possession. Therefore, no backcourt violation when A2 retrieves the ball in his backcourt.
Most instructors will tell you that indicating a spot or a runner throw in to both the offense and defense is good, solid preventative officiating so that if there is a thrown violation neither team can complain about a misunderstanding.
To my knowledge this mechanic is NOT in the official's manual.
No, an offensive player cannot regain the ability to dribble until another player touches the ball WHILE the original player no longer possesses the ball. So if A1 has continuous possession during the time that B1 touches the ball, A1 cannot dribble for the second time. A more likely call is if B1 touches the ball and pushes it in an opposite direction than A1 is holding it, it should be called a held ball (and go to the possession arrow).
In NFHS rules, a non-free thrower cannot enter the lane until the ball hits the rim or backboard. Assuming there was no harsh contact and that the player blocking out entered after the ball hit something (or went in) this should be a no call.
Technically all players have to be beckoned in by a referee. As a matter of practice, I would not call the T unless the player's entry gave them a distinct advantage such as an undefended fast break.
I am not an expert on AAU rules but common sense would tell anyone to avoid officiating your son's game in competitive play. It would be different if it was a "house" league, but this is inappropriate for traveling basketball.
If the officials determine that the fouls were simultaneous then no free throws are shot, and it goes back to the point of interruption. If the simultaneous fouls were committed with no team possession (for example while rebounding) then it goes to the possession arrow.
If the second foul was intentional and committed after the first foul it would be a technical. Then you would administer the penalties for the first foul (free throws if in the bonus or on a shooting foul), then you would administer the technical foul and the ball would be taken out at half court by the opponent of the technical foul shooter.
The defender must legally obtain the vertical space BEFORE the offensive player alights for a shot. So, if player B legally obtains a place on the floor and Player A crashes into him while coming down from a shot, player control foul on A.
The defensive player can be moving, but the rulebook says he must be moving obliquely, which means the defender cannot move directly into the path of the offensive player. For example a player who is backpedaling and is run over by the offensive player would draw a player control foul on the dribbler. You can also move sideways and backwards as a defender and still draw a charge.
Once both of the player's feet land in the front court and then he receives the ball there is no violation.
Ok. Situation 1: Offensive player A1 drives, shoots the ball while in the air and is fouled by defensive player B1 (before A1 returns to the floor). A1 is considered an "airborne shooter" until he hits the ground and is considered in the act of shooting. Count the basket and award one free throw.
Situation 2: Offensive player A1 drives, shoots the ball and lands back on the floor and is fouled by B1. Possession ended when the shot is released and the shooter is no longer an airborne shooter in the act when he lands on the floor. So when he is on the floor it is a common foul on B1 and award the ball to team A or free throws if in bonus. Count the basket by A1.
Situation 3: Offensive player A1 shoots the ball, ball goes in, and A1 crashes illegally (before landing on the floor) into B1 who has obtained legal guarding position, player control foul on A1. Ball goes to team B and no free throws. Wipe out made basket by A1.
Situation 4: Offensive player A1 shoots the ball, lands on the floor, ball goes in and A1 fouls B1. Count the basket. Common foul on A1, free throws for B1 if in bonus, otherwise ball goes to team B.
A player must have at least one foot ON or Above a 3 foot wide (parallel to the out of bounds line) during the throw in. He/she may move forward or back all the way to the wall or bleachers perpendicular to the out of bounds line. There is no requirement to maintain a pivot foot on a throw in, nor can you travel. The violation occurs when the throw in player exits a 3 foot wide area along the boundary line before the throw in.
Here are the screening rules:1) when screening a stationary opponent from the front or side, the screener may be anywhere short of contact.2) when screening a stationary opponent from behind the screener must allow the opponent one normal step backward3) when screening a moving opponent the screener must allow the opponent time and distance to avoid contact. The speed of the player to be screened will determine where the screener may set up. This may vary and may be one to two normal steps.4) when screening a player moving in the same direction, the player behind is responsible for all contact.
A defender has every right to hold his ground as long as he obtains the position legally. He has NO obligation to give ground or soften a collision once he obtains initial legal guarding position.
A player who alights in the air is considered to have court position from where his feet last touched the court. If the player jumps from out of bounds and touches the ball before he touches the court inbounds, it is a violation. There are 2 exceptions to this rule: 1) a defender who leaps from his front court to intercept a pass and lands in his backcourt, and 2) a defender who leaps from his front court to intercept a throw in and lands in his backcourt.
A free thrower is not obligated to make the free throw. He must hit the ring and not violate other free throw provisions (entering the lane early, etc.). Most players in that situation should throw a flat shot towards the ring, barely ever going above the rim.
The NFHS rule book lists one of the officials' duties is "granting time-outs". It does not specify that the words "time-out" are used. For example coaches can get a time out by signaling his hand in a "T". So if I heard a coach yelling time, time, time, I would grant that time a time-out.
There is no specific prohibition specifying the volume or content of on court expression except the provisions against unsportsmanlike conduct. For some (not me), excessively yelling "ball, ball" by a defender is unsportsmanlike.
Of course if the vocalization is derogatory or vulgar it would be a technical. You might as a preventative measure talk to the coach and suggest that a player yelling like this is getting close to unsportsmanlike behavior and he should tone it down.
Player B is awarded the points for the free throws he makes. There are no points awarded for drawing a foul - at least not in NFHS rules.
If the ball was established in the front court and an offensive player with ball control dribbles on the centerline or steps on any part of the centerline (while in control of the ball) it is a back court violation. The centerline is part of the back court.
If neither player is entitled to the air space where they collide, it should be treated as incidental contact, regardless of the severity of the impact.